MENYA ABAKOLONI B'ABABILIGI UKO BAJE MU RWANDA N’INGARUKA BATEJE (1916-1962).

Ababiligi binjiye mu Rwanda baje barwanya Abadage mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Bari bayoboye abasirikare   benshi b’Abanyekongo bari baremye ingabo zitwa „Force Publique“

Binjiye muri kigali muri kamena 1916

Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (Tembasi) babonye ko bo ari bake, ko kandi bagiye kugwa mu rukubo, barahunga bagana iya Tanganyika n’u Burundi. Kuva mu w’1916 kugeza mu w’1925, u Rwanda kimwe n’u Burundi rwagize ubutegetsi bwa gisirikare bucungwa n’Ababiligi. Ariko mu mwaka w’1919, umuryango w’ibihugu (Société Des Nations SDN) waragije u Bubiligi ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Babikomatanyiriza hamwe byitwa Ruanda – Urundi, biba nk’intara imwe.

Mu w’1925, niho Inama ishinga amategeko y’u Bubiligi yafashe icyemezo, ishyiraho itegeko rigira Ruanda – Urundi nk’imwe mu ntara za Kongo mbiligi ariko Ruanda – Urundi ikagira akantu k’umwihariko.

 

Uko bakoranye n’ubwami

Mu ntangiriro, Ababiligi babanje kwishisha Musinga kandi na we ni uko. Mu w’1917, bashyizeho “Rezidansi” y’u Rwanda. Hategekaga Major Declerk. U Rwanda ubwo rwaciwemo segiteri eshatu muri uwo mwaka, ariko guhera mu w’1921, barucamo teritwari : teritwari y’uburengerazuba umurwa uba Rubengera, teritwari y’amajyaruguru umurwa uba Ruhengeri, teritwari ya Nyanza umurwa uba Nyanza na teritwari y’iburasirazuba umurwa uba Kigali.

Ibyo bice by’ubutaka byari bigamije korohereza ubutegetsi , cyane cyane ibyerekeye gushaka ibyangombwa nk’ibiryo. Mu w’1919, ni ho Ababiligi bashyizeho intara zibumbiye hamwe kandi zagombye gushingwa umutware basangaga akize kurusha abandi (ni ubukire ku nka no ku bagaragu).

Ubundi umusozi umwe washoboraga kuba utegekwa n’abatware benshi. Izo ntara ziganaga buke imitegekere ya Rwabugiri (Musinga we na Kanjogera bari baraciye igihugu mo uduce twinshi bakigaba kugira ngo bagwize abayoboke). Kuva mu w’1917 kugeza mu w’1931, Ababiligi batangiye kugongana n’ubutegetsi bwa cyami, kugira ngo bisanzure mu butegetsi bwa gikolonize bagiye barandura buhoro buhoro ibishyitsi by’ubwami mu ntera zikurikira :

1917: umwami bamwambuye uburenganzira bwo kwica. Musinga na Kanjogera bumvise ko bibarangiranye. Musinga yagize ati “ubwo ntagishoboye kwica abantu uko nshaka, sinkiri umwami”. Uwo mwaka nibwo Rezida, Major Declerk ategetse Musinga gusinya iteka riha buri Munyarwanda uburenganzira bwo kuyoboka idini yishakiye. Abahungukiye cyane ni ba Misiyoneri b’Abagatolika.

1922: umwami bamwatse ububasha mu bucamanza, Musinga yari aziko ari “Nyamugirubutangwa”(Mutavuguruzwa mu byemezo). Ababiligi bemeye ko mu murimo we wo guca imanza, azunganirwa n’umuzungu uhagarariye Rezida.

1923: umwami bamugabanyirije ububasha bwo kugaba imisozi. Muri uwo mwaka bamubujije gushyiraho abatware mu gihugu no kubanyaga uko ashaka, abatware b’intara na bo ntibashoboraga gushyiraho abasushefu bitabanje kunyura kuri Rezida.

1925: ubwiru bwavanyweho kimwe n’umuganura. Kimwe mu byo ubwiru bwari bushinzwe ni ukuboneza umuhango w’umuganura. Muri uwo mwaka, adiministrateri wa Nyanza yafashe icyemezo cyo “guca” Gashamura umutware w’Abiru, amucira i Gitega (Burundi). Bamuzizaga ko yari afite uruhare mu mitegekere no mu mibanire y’ibwami n’Abazungu. Mgr Classe na we uwo mugambi wo kwigizayo Gashamura yari awurimo.

Rwampungu, umuhungu wa Gashamura, bahise bamushyira mu ishuli riyoborwa n’Umubiligi, bityo “ubwiru” burazima kuko bari babuciye umutwe. Na Bandora wari umupfumu n’umujyanama w’ibwami, Ababiligi bamwirukanye ibwami. Nguko uko ibishyitsi by’ubwami byaranduwe, Musinga na Kanjogera bakabura amaboko yari abafatiye runini mu butegetsi bwabo, mbese basigara ari abami ku izina. Icyari gisigaye ni ukubikiza nabo ubwabo: mu w’1926, ubwami bwarakendereye nta ngufu bwari bufite.

1931: umwami Yuhi Musinga na nyina Kanjogera baciriwe i Kamembe, bava ku butegetsi, Ababiligi babifashijwemo na Mgr Classe, bashyiraho Rudahigwa, ndetse baramwiyimikira, bamwita Mutara (bakurikije inama z’uwo musenyeri). Rudahigwa bwakeye atangaza icyo bise “Irivuze umwami”: ngo abantu bose bazayoboke za misiyoni, ari byo kuvuga ngo bazayoboke Abapadiri.

 

Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi (1926-1928)

 

Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abatware batatu bari basanzwe bategeka ahantu hamwe. Abo batware ni aba:

“umutware w’ubutaka” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibihingwa n’ibiva mu myuga, akaburanisha n’ibyerekeye amasambu.

“umutware w’umukenke” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibikomoka ku nka, yakebaga ibikingi akanabitanga, abiha ufite inka zirenze eshanu.. Umutware w’umukenke nta bubasha yari afite bwo kuburanisha.

“umutware w’ingabo” : yabazwaga ibyerekeye itabaro n’imanza zerekeye ibikingi n’izindi mpamvu zashoboraga kuboneka hagati y’imiryango.

Hari ubwo byabagaho umuntu umwe akomatanya imirimo ibiri. Umuntu yavuga nka Rwabirinda rwa Rwogera yari umutware w’ubutaka n’umutware w’umukenke mu Mpara (Kinyaga), umuhutu Ndongozi se wa Basomingera na we yari abumbye iyo mirimo yombi mu Bwanacyambwe.

 Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi bwa rezida mortehan (1926)

Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abo batware batatu bari bafite ubutegetsi hirya no hino mu gihugu (nka Gashamura yategekaga igice cy’u Bumbogo, icy’u Buriza, icy’i Gisaka n’ibindi). Urwego rw’igiti (district) rwabaye nk’urusimburwa na Teritwari, urw’igikingi rusimburwa na za Susheferi. Hagati y’izo nzego zombi, Rezida Mortehan yunzemo urwego rwa Sheferi rutari rufite urundi rusa na rwo mu butegetsi bwa cyami.

 

Inkurikizi ziryo vugururwa

 

Imirimo y’ubutaka n’iy’inka yeguriwe umutware umwe rukumbi. Bene uwo mutware yahise agira ubutegetsi buremereye kandi bubumbiye hamwe, ni ubutegetsi bukomeye muri politiki no mu cyubahiro. Umutware yafashe intera nshyashya.

  • Uburyo bwa kera bwo kwitabaza umutware w’ingabo cyangwa undi mu by’imanza bwarazimiye.
  • Ubuhake bwongereye umurego : umutware mushya yagize uburyo bwo kubona abagaragu bashya, baturutse ahanini ku bashaka gusonerwa mu “kazi”. Abagaragu baturutse kuri icyo

           gitugu cya politiki ya gikolonize, bakomeje kwiyongera.

  • Amashuli n’ubutegetsi bw’abakoloni byatumye shefu na sushefu bakomera muri ubwo butegetsi bwa gikolonize. Akenshi kandi abatware bashya bari bafite icyizere cyo kuzaramba mu butegetsi : icyari ngombwa kwari ukumenya amayeri yo guhakirizwa ku bazungu, ari aba Leta, ari na ba Misiyoneri.

 Gahunda ya politike ya goverineri voisin (1930)

Guhamishaho no gushyigikira ubutegetsi busanzwe mu Rwanda, mu gihe butabangamiye amabwiriza ya kijyambere. Kugenzura cyane ubwo butegetsi kugira ngo budakabya mu byerekeye uburetwa n’amakoro. Kunyaga no gusimbura abatware badashoboye, bagasimbuzwa abakandida batanzwe ku bwumvikane bwagiranywe n’umwami buri gihe.

Kubumbira hamwe intara z’ubutegetsi, ku buryo ibikingi biri intage byatunganywa, bikegeranywa bitegekwa n’umuntu umwe. Abategetsi b’abazungu bagomba kwicengezamo igitekerezo ko, nta bufatanye bw’abategetsi kavukire, ubutegetsi bwa kinyamahanga bwagera aho bukabura imbaraga kandi bugasatirwa n’akajagari ko kutagira ubutegetsi.

 

Ababiligi

Mu mwaka w’1926, Minisitiri wa za Koloni mbiligi, ariwe Ludoviko Franck, yategetse ko Ababiligi muri Ruanda – Urundi bagomba gukurikiza politiki y’ubutegetsi buziguye (ni ubwifashisha abategetsi kavukire, ntibwivange mu baturage).

Yemeje ko byanze bikunze bagomba kwifashisha Abatutsi. Iyo politiki y’irondakoko yashyizwe mu bikorwa ku buryo bubiri : mu mashuri no mu butegetsi (administration). Mu rwego rwa politiki, Ababiligi ahanini ni bo bahaye u Rwanda isura rwaserukanye igihe cy’ubwigenge. Ariko hari n’uruhare rw’umuryango w’ibihugu ariwo “Société Des Nations“(SDN) kimwe n’urw’abatware .Ubutegetsi bwabo bwagize ibyiciro bitatu:

Icya mbere ni ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari (occupation militaire) 1916 – 1926

Icya kabiri ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo busesuye (mandat) 1926 – 1949

Icya gatatu ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo bucagase (tutelle) 1949 – 1962.

 

Last modified on Wednesday, 07 October 2020 09:05

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