Jean de Dieu UDAHEMUKA

Jean de Dieu UDAHEMUKA

Yitwa NTIRUSHWA Anaclet ni Umumyarwanda umunyamakuru ku Ibendera TV online n’umwanditsi mukuru wa UKURI.RW, aba I Kigali mu Karere ka Gasabo.

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

 

1.Ni hehe wa tembereye mu Rwanda?

Natembereye I Rubavu.

2. Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu matekay’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Nkunda umuganura.

3. Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda ?

Natembereye I Rubavu ku mazi y’amashyuza.

4.Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda kurya Ibitoki.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda Umutobe.

6.Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Nitwaza telefoni.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Ntaryo;

8.Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze ?

Natembereye ku Kivu cyo ku Gisenyi.

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda, ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda ?Kubera iki?

Nkunda Volcano Express kubera ko ihaguruka buri minota 15 kandi bagerageza kubahiriza igihe.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi ,umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Nkunda MASAMBA indirimbo yise Rudasumbwa ivuga kubutwari umuntu yakabaye agira.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

Nahitamo gutura I Kigali kubera ko Umuntu amenya ibye n’undi akamenya ibye bitandukanye no mu cyaro aho buri wese aba arebuzwa mugenzi we.

12.Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Ntaryo.

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

Ni igihugu cya Afrikay’epfo Kubera ko Nelson MANDELA ariho yavukiye akaba intwari mu kurwanya irondaruhu.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Ni fuza kugera Ku mulindi w’intwali.

15.Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyumwaka wa 2020?

Sindabipanga.

Murakoze

Murakoze cyane.

 

 

Umudage wa mbere wabonanye n’umwami w’u Rwanda Kigeri IV Rwabugiri, ni Comte Von Götzen mu w’1884, asanze umwami i Kageyo (Komini Ramba) amuyoboweho na mwene Rwabugiri, Sharangabo yari akuye mu Buganza (Rwamagana).

Nyuma y’aho Abadage bakomeje kuzenguruka u Rwanda, bakora ubushakashatsi nka Kandt (bise Kanayoge) wabaye Rezida wa mbere w’umudage mu Rwanda, agataha umurwa wa Kigali mu w’1908, abandi bahazaga baturutse i Bujumbura, bazanywe no gutanga umutekano w’abivumbagatanya badashaka Musinga. Mu w’1900 niho Abapadiri ba mbere b’Abagatolika baje mu Rwanda. Ni abo mu mulyango w’Abapadiri bera. Batashye i Save bavuye kuhasaba ibwami.

Abamisiyoneri ba mbere b’Abaporoso baje mu Rwanda mu w’1907, ni abo mu itorero rya Luteri. Ni bo bashinze za Misiyoni zikurikira : Kirinda, Rubengera na Remera rya Rukoma. Bavuye mu Rwanda mu w’1916, bene wabo Abadage baneshejwe n’Ababiligi mu Rwanda. Nyuma, Misiyoni yabo yaje kuvamo Itorero ry’Abaperesipiteriyani mu Rwanda.

Umupaka w’amajyaruguru

Mu mwaka w’1910, i Buruseli mu Bubiligi habaye inama yari irimo Abongereza, Abadage n’Ababiligi, ngo bagabane u Rwanda. Bahereye ku Kirunga cya Sabyinyo baca umurongo uzamutse ukagera ku kiyaga kitiriwe Eduwaridi, umwami w’Abongereza, undi bawuca intambike bakurikije uko ibirunga biteye. Bityo u Bubiligi bwegukana igice kiri mu majyaruguru ya Kivu nka za Gishari na Bwishya, hari n’Ijwi. U Bwongereza bwegukana Bufumbira (mu w’1928, bari bakivuga ngo ni u Rwanda rw’Abongereza). U Budage busigarana u Rwanda uko rumeze ubu.

Uko gutera imirwi igihugu byababaje Musinga cyane ndetse n’Abatutsi bahategekaga. Mu w’1912, ni ho Komisiyo yo gutera imbago ku mipaka yarangije akazi.

Uko Abadage bakoranye n’Umwami Musinga

 

Politiki y’ingenzi y’imitegekere y’Abadage yabaye iyo gushyigikira umwami w’u Rwanda n’abatware . Ibyo bigafasha Abadage kuboneza politiki ya “Protectorat” ijyana n’ubutegetsi buziguye. Birumvikana, kuko Abadage bari mbarwa. Uko gushyigikira no kwanga “akajagari” byatumye abasirikare b’abadage bagaba ibitero hirya no hino byo guhosha imyivumbagatanyo yo kurwanya Musinga.

Mu w’1902 bagabye igitero cyo kurwanya Rukara rwa Bishingwe washakaga ubwigenge bwa Gisaka yifashishije Abapadiri b’i Zaza. Mu w’1908 – 1909 bagabye igitero cyo guhashya Basebya, naho mu w’1911 – 1912 bagaba igitero cyo kurwanya Ndungutse bafatanyije n’ingabo z’ibwami (Lt. Gudovius, ari we bwana Lazima) na Rwubusisi.

Mu w’1910, Abadage bagabye igitero gikaze mu Murera (Ruhengeri) cyo guhorera Padiri Loupias, Umufaransa wari umaze kwicwa n’ingabo za Rukara rwa Bishingwe, uwo mupadiri yashakaga kuhashyigikira ubutegetsi bwa Musinga, akubitiraho no kwivanga mu by’Abarashi b’indwanyi, kandi icyo gihe yari kumwe n’umugaragu we umutwaje imbunda, ashaka kuyitabaza, baramutanga.

Mu w’1914, hadutse intambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Abadage mu Rwanda bashyigikiwe na Musinga hamwe n’ingabo ze zoherejwe ku rugamba bisha na bisha, zitwaga “Indugaruga” . Abaturage bo, uruhare rwabo rwabaye urwo kwikorera imitwaro no gutanga ibiribwa.

Mu w’1916 (Kamena), Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (bwana Tembasi) bakuyemo akabo karenge, bahunga Ababiligi babarushaga ubwinshi, kandi bari bunganiwe n’Abongereza. Ng’uko uko bavuye mu Rwanda. Musinga yarinze apfa agikumbuye Abadage.

 

Ababiligi binjiye mu Rwanda baje barwanya Abadage mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Bari bayoboye abasirikare   benshi b’Abanyekongo bari baremye ingabo zitwa „Force Publique“

Binjiye muri kigali muri kamena 1916

Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (Tembasi) babonye ko bo ari bake, ko kandi bagiye kugwa mu rukubo, barahunga bagana iya Tanganyika n’u Burundi. Kuva mu w’1916 kugeza mu w’1925, u Rwanda kimwe n’u Burundi rwagize ubutegetsi bwa gisirikare bucungwa n’Ababiligi. Ariko mu mwaka w’1919, umuryango w’ibihugu (Société Des Nations SDN) waragije u Bubiligi ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Babikomatanyiriza hamwe byitwa Ruanda – Urundi, biba nk’intara imwe.

Mu w’1925, niho Inama ishinga amategeko y’u Bubiligi yafashe icyemezo, ishyiraho itegeko rigira Ruanda – Urundi nk’imwe mu ntara za Kongo mbiligi ariko Ruanda – Urundi ikagira akantu k’umwihariko.

 

Uko bakoranye n’ubwami

Mu ntangiriro, Ababiligi babanje kwishisha Musinga kandi na we ni uko. Mu w’1917, bashyizeho “Rezidansi” y’u Rwanda. Hategekaga Major Declerk. U Rwanda ubwo rwaciwemo segiteri eshatu muri uwo mwaka, ariko guhera mu w’1921, barucamo teritwari : teritwari y’uburengerazuba umurwa uba Rubengera, teritwari y’amajyaruguru umurwa uba Ruhengeri, teritwari ya Nyanza umurwa uba Nyanza na teritwari y’iburasirazuba umurwa uba Kigali.

Ibyo bice by’ubutaka byari bigamije korohereza ubutegetsi , cyane cyane ibyerekeye gushaka ibyangombwa nk’ibiryo. Mu w’1919, ni ho Ababiligi bashyizeho intara zibumbiye hamwe kandi zagombye gushingwa umutware basangaga akize kurusha abandi (ni ubukire ku nka no ku bagaragu).

Ubundi umusozi umwe washoboraga kuba utegekwa n’abatware benshi. Izo ntara ziganaga buke imitegekere ya Rwabugiri (Musinga we na Kanjogera bari baraciye igihugu mo uduce twinshi bakigaba kugira ngo bagwize abayoboke). Kuva mu w’1917 kugeza mu w’1931, Ababiligi batangiye kugongana n’ubutegetsi bwa cyami, kugira ngo bisanzure mu butegetsi bwa gikolonize bagiye barandura buhoro buhoro ibishyitsi by’ubwami mu ntera zikurikira :

1917: umwami bamwambuye uburenganzira bwo kwica. Musinga na Kanjogera bumvise ko bibarangiranye. Musinga yagize ati “ubwo ntagishoboye kwica abantu uko nshaka, sinkiri umwami”. Uwo mwaka nibwo Rezida, Major Declerk ategetse Musinga gusinya iteka riha buri Munyarwanda uburenganzira bwo kuyoboka idini yishakiye. Abahungukiye cyane ni ba Misiyoneri b’Abagatolika.

1922: umwami bamwatse ububasha mu bucamanza, Musinga yari aziko ari “Nyamugirubutangwa”(Mutavuguruzwa mu byemezo). Ababiligi bemeye ko mu murimo we wo guca imanza, azunganirwa n’umuzungu uhagarariye Rezida.

1923: umwami bamugabanyirije ububasha bwo kugaba imisozi. Muri uwo mwaka bamubujije gushyiraho abatware mu gihugu no kubanyaga uko ashaka, abatware b’intara na bo ntibashoboraga gushyiraho abasushefu bitabanje kunyura kuri Rezida.

1925: ubwiru bwavanyweho kimwe n’umuganura. Kimwe mu byo ubwiru bwari bushinzwe ni ukuboneza umuhango w’umuganura. Muri uwo mwaka, adiministrateri wa Nyanza yafashe icyemezo cyo “guca” Gashamura umutware w’Abiru, amucira i Gitega (Burundi). Bamuzizaga ko yari afite uruhare mu mitegekere no mu mibanire y’ibwami n’Abazungu. Mgr Classe na we uwo mugambi wo kwigizayo Gashamura yari awurimo.

Rwampungu, umuhungu wa Gashamura, bahise bamushyira mu ishuli riyoborwa n’Umubiligi, bityo “ubwiru” burazima kuko bari babuciye umutwe. Na Bandora wari umupfumu n’umujyanama w’ibwami, Ababiligi bamwirukanye ibwami. Nguko uko ibishyitsi by’ubwami byaranduwe, Musinga na Kanjogera bakabura amaboko yari abafatiye runini mu butegetsi bwabo, mbese basigara ari abami ku izina. Icyari gisigaye ni ukubikiza nabo ubwabo: mu w’1926, ubwami bwarakendereye nta ngufu bwari bufite.

1931: umwami Yuhi Musinga na nyina Kanjogera baciriwe i Kamembe, bava ku butegetsi, Ababiligi babifashijwemo na Mgr Classe, bashyiraho Rudahigwa, ndetse baramwiyimikira, bamwita Mutara (bakurikije inama z’uwo musenyeri). Rudahigwa bwakeye atangaza icyo bise “Irivuze umwami”: ngo abantu bose bazayoboke za misiyoni, ari byo kuvuga ngo bazayoboke Abapadiri.

 

Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi (1926-1928)

 

Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abatware batatu bari basanzwe bategeka ahantu hamwe. Abo batware ni aba:

“umutware w’ubutaka” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibihingwa n’ibiva mu myuga, akaburanisha n’ibyerekeye amasambu.

“umutware w’umukenke” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibikomoka ku nka, yakebaga ibikingi akanabitanga, abiha ufite inka zirenze eshanu.. Umutware w’umukenke nta bubasha yari afite bwo kuburanisha.

“umutware w’ingabo” : yabazwaga ibyerekeye itabaro n’imanza zerekeye ibikingi n’izindi mpamvu zashoboraga kuboneka hagati y’imiryango.

Hari ubwo byabagaho umuntu umwe akomatanya imirimo ibiri. Umuntu yavuga nka Rwabirinda rwa Rwogera yari umutware w’ubutaka n’umutware w’umukenke mu Mpara (Kinyaga), umuhutu Ndongozi se wa Basomingera na we yari abumbye iyo mirimo yombi mu Bwanacyambwe.

 Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi bwa rezida mortehan (1926)

Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abo batware batatu bari bafite ubutegetsi hirya no hino mu gihugu (nka Gashamura yategekaga igice cy’u Bumbogo, icy’u Buriza, icy’i Gisaka n’ibindi). Urwego rw’igiti (district) rwabaye nk’urusimburwa na Teritwari, urw’igikingi rusimburwa na za Susheferi. Hagati y’izo nzego zombi, Rezida Mortehan yunzemo urwego rwa Sheferi rutari rufite urundi rusa na rwo mu butegetsi bwa cyami.

 

Inkurikizi ziryo vugururwa

 

Imirimo y’ubutaka n’iy’inka yeguriwe umutware umwe rukumbi. Bene uwo mutware yahise agira ubutegetsi buremereye kandi bubumbiye hamwe, ni ubutegetsi bukomeye muri politiki no mu cyubahiro. Umutware yafashe intera nshyashya.

  • Uburyo bwa kera bwo kwitabaza umutware w’ingabo cyangwa undi mu by’imanza bwarazimiye.
  • Ubuhake bwongereye umurego : umutware mushya yagize uburyo bwo kubona abagaragu bashya, baturutse ahanini ku bashaka gusonerwa mu “kazi”. Abagaragu baturutse kuri icyo

           gitugu cya politiki ya gikolonize, bakomeje kwiyongera.

  • Amashuli n’ubutegetsi bw’abakoloni byatumye shefu na sushefu bakomera muri ubwo butegetsi bwa gikolonize. Akenshi kandi abatware bashya bari bafite icyizere cyo kuzaramba mu butegetsi : icyari ngombwa kwari ukumenya amayeri yo guhakirizwa ku bazungu, ari aba Leta, ari na ba Misiyoneri.

 Gahunda ya politike ya goverineri voisin (1930)

Guhamishaho no gushyigikira ubutegetsi busanzwe mu Rwanda, mu gihe butabangamiye amabwiriza ya kijyambere. Kugenzura cyane ubwo butegetsi kugira ngo budakabya mu byerekeye uburetwa n’amakoro. Kunyaga no gusimbura abatware badashoboye, bagasimbuzwa abakandida batanzwe ku bwumvikane bwagiranywe n’umwami buri gihe.

Kubumbira hamwe intara z’ubutegetsi, ku buryo ibikingi biri intage byatunganywa, bikegeranywa bitegekwa n’umuntu umwe. Abategetsi b’abazungu bagomba kwicengezamo igitekerezo ko, nta bufatanye bw’abategetsi kavukire, ubutegetsi bwa kinyamahanga bwagera aho bukabura imbaraga kandi bugasatirwa n’akajagari ko kutagira ubutegetsi.

 

Ababiligi

Mu mwaka w’1926, Minisitiri wa za Koloni mbiligi, ariwe Ludoviko Franck, yategetse ko Ababiligi muri Ruanda – Urundi bagomba gukurikiza politiki y’ubutegetsi buziguye (ni ubwifashisha abategetsi kavukire, ntibwivange mu baturage).

Yemeje ko byanze bikunze bagomba kwifashisha Abatutsi. Iyo politiki y’irondakoko yashyizwe mu bikorwa ku buryo bubiri : mu mashuri no mu butegetsi (administration). Mu rwego rwa politiki, Ababiligi ahanini ni bo bahaye u Rwanda isura rwaserukanye igihe cy’ubwigenge. Ariko hari n’uruhare rw’umuryango w’ibihugu ariwo “Société Des Nations“(SDN) kimwe n’urw’abatware .Ubutegetsi bwabo bwagize ibyiciro bitatu:

Icya mbere ni ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari (occupation militaire) 1916 – 1926

Icya kabiri ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo busesuye (mandat) 1926 – 1949

Icya gatatu ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo bucagase (tutelle) 1949 – 1962.

 

"RUBANDA NI ABAHANYA"

Rubanda ni abahanya; ni umugani baca iyo bashaka gutsindira umuntu ubugome badasobanuye uwo ari we; ni bwo bagira ngo: "Rubanda ni abahanya!" Wakomotse ku muja wa Mibambwe Sekarongoro witwaga Nyirabihanya muka Buyoyo w'i Nyarusave ku Itaba rya Bugoba i Rukoma (Gitarama); ahasaga umwaka w'i 1400.

Ku ngoma ya Mibambwe uwonguwo, hariho umugabo Buyoyo, sekuru wa Bunyereli bwa Muhozi mu Gishubi cya Muganza, akaba umunyamuhango mu Ntalindwa z'ibwami. Aho rero apfiriye asiga umugore we Nyirabihanya n'abana be bari mu muryango ukomeye cyane.

Nuko Buyoyo amaze gupfa, umugore we Nyirabihanya ajya kumubikira Mibambwe mu Ruhango rwa Kanyinya na Remera. Mibambwe amaze kubyumva, abaza Nyirabihanya ubwoko bwe. Undi, ati: "Ndi umuzigabakazi". Mibambwe yumvise ko Nyirabihanya ari ubwoko bwiza arishima. Urukundo rumutegeka kumugira umubambuzi wo gucunda, kuko abazigaba ari abase b'abasindi, ari bo banyiginya. Ubwo Nyirabihanya ahabwa umuhango wo kubambura nk'uko abandi bagore b'abazigaba n'abageserakazi ari bo babamburaga bacunda. Amaze guhabwa uwo muhango yiyuzuza na muka Mibambwe witwaga Nyirahondi (Hondi) ndetse ngo baranywana. Dore ko mbere n'abagore banywanaga!

Bimaze iminsi, Mibambwe aca iteka, ati: "Umuntu muto wese umaze guca akenge, muciriye mu Karambo ka Rukore". Ubwo abato bose bajyana mu Karambo ka Rukore; na bene Nyirabihanya batatu bato bajyana n'abandi basore. Haciyeho iminsi, Nyirabihanya ajya gusura abo bana be, agira ngo anabonereho urwaho rwo kwimenyereza Gahima ka Mibambwe, na nyina Matama wari warambagijwe mu bwiru, i Buha muri Tanzaniya.

Nuko Nyirabihanya amaze gutirimuka aho, abanzi be bamurega kuri nyirabuja Nyirahondi, bavuga ko yagiye gukeza mukeba we Matama. Aho Nyirabihanya ahindukiriye avuye mu Karambo, ageze mu Ruhango kwa Mibambwe, Nyirahondi aramutumiza ngo amwitabe. Nyirabihanya araza. Agitunguka, Nyirahondi aramubwira, ati: "Ntuzongere kugera aho ndi, uzagume mu Karambo !" Nyirabihanya amaze kubyumva atyo, ajya kumenyesha Mibambwe ko yaciwe mu rugo. Mibambwe aramuseka, ati: "Mbese waketse ko Nyirahondi ari we utegeka urugo rwanjye!"

Hashize iminsi, abana ba Mibambwe na Nyirahondi bavutse impanga barapfa. Rugengimanzi na Rugemintwaza. Ubwo igihugu gicika umugongo kubera abo bana b'umwami bavutse impanga bapfiriye rimwe. Uretse ko bari bene Mibambwe, Abanyarwanda bose barabakundaga, ku mpamvu z'imico yabo igeretseho no guhaka neza.

Nuko muri uwo mubabaro wa Nyirahondi uvanze n'urwango yanze Nyirabihanya, amuhimbira ubugome afatanije n'umutoni we witwaga Busanane wahoze ahakanywe na Buyoyo. Batangira gukwiza impuha zigera kuri Mibambwe, ngo Rugengimanzi na Rugemintwaza barozwe na Nyirabihanya. Inkuru imaze kwogera hose, Mibambwe arabirakarira, abibaza Nyirahondi, ati: "Numvise ngo abana banjye ntibishwe n'urupfu rusanzwe, ntiwambwira icyabishe?" Nyirahondi, ati: "Uretse kumbaza nkana se wowe ntukizi ?" Mibambwe agwa mu kantu. Nyirahondi abonye ko ababaye, yuririzamo, ati: "Ese ntuzi ko barozwe na wa mugirwa wawe Nyirabihanya ?" Mibambwe arinjirwa. Aherako atanga Nyirabihanya n'umuryango we wose, atarokoye na ba bana be bagiye mu Karambo kwa Gahima na Matama; umuryango wa Nyirabihanya urarimbuka.

Ariko izina rye risigaranwa n'agahwazi k'itaba (aka bita ikiryamo k'inzovu) kari hafi y'urugo rwe, yarakagize imbuga bahuriraho imyaka; gasigara kitwa Nyirabihanya. Busanane na we wamureganye na Hondi inshuti za Nyirabihanya zimubeshyera kuri Mibambwe ngo ni we wamuroze umusonga. Baramutanga arapfa. Aho yari atuye kuri Buguli hasigara hitwa ku Kabusanane. Nuko kuva ubwo, uwo bashatse gutsindira ubugome wese, nyamara ataburanganwa bakamwita umuhanya nk'aho agirana isano na Nyirabihanya. Biragumya birotota, bigeza ubwo bakomatanirije abantu bose muri uyu mugani, ucibwa bavuga ngo: "Rubanda ni abahanya!"

Umuhanya = umugiranabi.

 

 

  1. 1. Kalinda Viateur yari Umunyarwanda , umunyamakuru wakoraga kuri Radio Rwanda mu ishami ry’imikino.
  2. 2. Kalinda Viateur, ni izina rizwi cyane nk’umunyamakuru wogeje umupira kuri Radiyo Rwanda kuva mu 1978 kugeza mu 1994 .

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  1. 3.Yavutse mu 1953, avukira mu cyahoze ari Komini Rutare, Segiteri Murehe, ubu akaba ari akarere ka Gicumbi, Umurenge wa Ruvune.

 

  1. 4.Amashuri abanza yayize ahantu hatandukanye: Kinyami, Rutare na Muhura.
    1. 5.Amashuri yisumbuye yayize kuri “Seminari Nto ya Mutagatifu Saviyo Dominiko” yo ku Rwesero, Amashuri makuru ayiga muri Seminari Nkuru ya Nyakibanda, aho yamaze imyaka ibiri yiga Filosofi (Philosophy).
    2. 6.Nyuma yaje kujya kwiga imyaka itatu muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda i Butare, aho yakurikiranye ishami ry’indimi kugeza mu mwaka wa 1977.
    3. 7.Mu 1988, yagiye kwiga muri “ Institut Supérieur Catholique Pédagogique appliqué” i Nkumba ahahoze hitwa Ruhengeri. Yahize icyiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza mu ndimi.
    4. 8.Arangije yoherejwe mu mahugurwa mu Bubiligi mu bijyanye na Televiziyo kuko ari bwo yari igiye gushingwa bwa mbere mu Rwanda.
    5. 9.yatoranyijwe mu bagomba kwitabira amahugurwa y’amezi 9 yabereye mu Bubiligi yari ajyanye n’ibya Televisiyo yari igiye gutangizwa bwa mbere mu Rwanda.

 

  1. 10.Avuye mu Bubiligi mu 1989, Kalinda yahise aba umunyamakuru w’imikino kuri Televiziyo y’u Rwanda ahava mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1993 agizwe umunyamakuru uhagarariye ORINFOR mu cyahoze ari Perefegitura ya Byumba.

 

  1. 11.Kalinda yakoze kuri Radiyo Rwanda mu ishami rya “Documentation” nyuma aza kuba umunyamakuru w’imikino.

 

  1. 12.Kalinda yashakanye na Uzanyinyana Domithile mu 1979 babyarana abana 4: NKUBITO Kalinda Thiery , Mitali Adolphe, Mukakalinda Aline na Igihozo M. Christella.
  2. 13.Kalinda Viateur yanditse igitabo akita “Rwaranyeganyeze” cyasobanuraga amategeko y’umupira w’amaguru.
    1. 14.Niwe wahimbye amwe mu magambo akoreshwa muri Ruhago mu Rwanda.
    2. 15.Ayo magambo ni aya: Rwanyeganyeze, Kurengura umupira, Urubuga rw’amahina, Ruhago, Umurongo w’abagatanu, Kwamurura Inyoni, Imboni, inguni, Urushundura, Imana y’ibitego, Kunobagiza, Rwari ruhiye ndetse n’ibindi.
    3. 16.Azwi cyane nk’ umunyamakuru wogezaga umupira w’amaguru bikanyura abawumva.
    4. 17.Yakanguriye ibigo binyuranye gukora amakipe y’imikino aho yashinze ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru yitwaga “Imboni” muri Minisiteri y’itangazamakuru (MININFOR)”.
    5. 18.Yagiye mu bihugu byinshi, ku migabane itandukanye aherekeje abakinnyi.
    6. 19.Kalinda Viateur yazize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu w’1994 Yicwa tariki 24 Mata.
    7. 20.Umurambo we wabonetse 1995 ari nabwo yashyinguwe. Bamumenyeye ku ikarita y’umunyamakuru yari agifite.

 

  1. 21.Kalinda ashyinguwe hamwe n’abihayimana mu irimbi rya Kiriziya Gaturika ry’i Kabgayi.

 

 

Imvano Yinkuru n’ifoto : internet

Inzu za mbere zubakishije amatafari zubatswe n’abazungu. Abakozi babakoreye nabo bahise baboneraho kubigana barazubaka ariko bagakomeza kurara mu nzu basanganywe z’ibyatsi izubakishije amatafari bakazirazamo abana.

Mu Kagari ka Karengera, Umurenge wa Musambira ho mu Karere ka Kamonyi, inzu ya mbere yubakishije amatafari yahabaye yari iy’umuzungu w’umubiligi witwaga Demeya . Kuri ubu, iyo nzu ni urusengero rw’itorero Presypiterienne mu Rwanda, Paruwasi ya Musambira. Uwo muzungu yubatse iyo nzu nyuma y’inzara ya ruzagayura (avuga ko yabaye ahagana mu 1930), ubwo yakoreragamo akazi ko gusya imyumbati.

Muri icyo gihe ahandi hari inzu z’amatafari hari kuri misiyoni i Kabgayi ahabanje amatanura y’amatafari ahiye bita “Mpunyu” yazanywe n’abapadiri b’abazungu. Ngo nyuma yaho gato niho abafundi bakoze i Kabgayi bigannye iforomo abazungu bakoresha mu kubumba amatafari ya mpunyu, ariko bo bakora nini, iba ariyo babumbisha “Rukarakara”. Batangiye kubaka inzu z’amatafari ya rukarakara ariko ntibaziraremo kuko bavugaga ko zikonja. Bahitagamo kurara mu nzu z’ibyatsi, iz’amatafari bakazirazamo abana bamaze kuba abasore.

Ifu Demaya yasyaga yayishyiraga abo uwo musaza yita “Abapiya” bishatse kuvuga abanyarwanda bari barajyanywe mu Ntara ya Katanga ho muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo gucukura amabuye y’agaciro no gukorera Kawa. Kuko ngo icyo gihe abanyarwanda bari bataramenya kurya imyumbati cyangwa ubugari kuko bayihinze ku gahato nyuma y’inzara ya Ruzagayura muri shiku (bahingiraga hamwe ari benshi).Abo rero ngo nibo bagarutse bakigisha imiryango yabo kurya imyumbati.

Yitwa Gaston Rwaka Kayitaba,ni umunyamakuru atuye ku Musozi witwa Mt Kigali ufite amateka akomeye kuko hari imirwa igera kuri 7 yatuyeho abami b’ u Rwanda harimo Cyirima Rugwe na Kigeli 4 Rwabugiri, nkunda kubona abantu bankikije batekanye(umuryango wanjye, inshuti ndetse n’ abaturanyi)

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

 

1.Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda ?

 

Bitewe n’ ubuzima nabayemo nta hantu na hamwe nyaburanga navuga ko ntazi muri uru RWANDA Rwa Gasabo dore n’ u Rwanda rugari nararugenze ahashoboka.

 

2. Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

 

Nkunda Rugamba Cyprien kuko ni umuntu wakundaga impinduka kandi utararyaga ruswa kugeza aho yemeye kuhasiga ubuzima adatatiriye.

 

 

3. Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda ?

Yewe nubwo ubuzima bwanjye bwagiye burangwa no gutembera ubu sinzi uko byangendekeye maze imyaka igera kuri itanu ntarenga Umurwa usibye rimwe muri 2019 natembereye kuri Nyirangarama nabwo ntabwo naharaye.

Ahubwo ndasaba Gihangamana kongera kunfungurira imiryango maze inzuzi zikera.

 

4. Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

 

Amateke n’ imyumbati usibye ko byinshi ubu ntakibyita ibya kinyarwanda ahubwo ni imituburano .

Kuri iyi ngingo igitangaje n’ uko ibiryo by’ umwimerere by’ abanyarwanda wabisanga mu Burayi cyangwa no muri Amerika.

Aha ntumbaze uburyo byahageze icyo nzi n’ uko abera ari abahanga bijyaniye imbuto nyayo batuzanira imituburano kuko bazi ko dushonje cyane bityo ntidukeneye ibyiza ahubwo turangajwe imbere na byinshi kugira ngo bitumare isari.

 

 

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

 

Nkunda amata nubwo ntayazi neza kuko navukiye ahantu bayashyiramo isukari usibye ko na none ntazi no gukama ariko nkunda inka kugeza naho amase ampumurira neza cyane kurusha n’ imibavu imwe n’ imwe.

 

6. Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

 

Nitwaza inkoni kuko ifite ibisobanura byinshi kuri njye mfashe urugero rwa Mose.

 

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

 

Inganji mu Nganzo iyoborwa na Maso.

 

8.Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

 

Mu Ruhengeri iyo mbonye bya Birunga numva ndi I Rwanda nkumva nanahasazira.

 

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda,ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda? Kubera iki?

 

VIRUNGA, Yubahiriza igihe kandi igerageza no kubaha abagenzi.

 

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi,umwanditsi,umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

 

 

Rugamba Cyprien” Tuguhaye Impundu”indirimbo

Bernard Birasa”Union Africaine” tableau.

 

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

 

Ruhengeri hari Climat nziza cyane ! Impamvu ni nyinshi ariko iya mbere n’ ikirere kandi gikubiyemo byinshi.

 

12.Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

 

Nkunda Kigali Up.

 

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

 

Ethiopia, Ni igihugu gifite amateka adasanzwe kuko nicyo cyo nyine kitigeze gikolonizwa kandi gifite abantu beza bafite umuco w’ ubutwari.

 

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

 

Nta na hamwe kuko umusozi ntuyeho nk’ uko nabivuze ufite amateka akomeye kuko watuweho abami ariko nanjye ndahabyariye ndaharereye mpafite inshuti ndetse n’ abanzi icyo nifuza n’ uko nkomeza kuhaba neza.

 

15.Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyu mwaka wa 2020?

 

Ndifuza kugera mu Gakenke ngiye guhemba mabukwe kuko nawe yaje kumbemba ubwo nibarukaga umwana w’ umukobwa nise Isogi Rwaka Gracia.

 

Murakoze cyane.

 

Murakoze cyane.

 

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yatangiye ahagana mu Kwakira kw’i 1943. Yatewe n’amapfa yamaze imyaka ibiri. Ayo mapfa yatangiye muri Nzeri  1942, yongera kubaho nyuma gato y’itumba ryo mu 1943.

Ruzagayura yatewe kandi n’igabanyuka ry ‘ibiribwa ryaturutse ku ndwara y’ibirayi bita « mildiou/mildew », ndetse no ku ndwara y’ibishyimbo bita « chortophila » no ku ndwara y’ibijumba bita « rhizoctonia/rhizoctonie ». Nk’uko bigaragara.

 izo ndwara zibasiye ibiribwa by’ibanze by’Abanyarwanda b’icyo gihe. Inzara ya Ruzagayura yongerewe ubukana n’intambara ndetse n’uko icyo gihe Abanyarwanda  bagombaga guha umusanzu Leta nkoloni y’Ababiligi yari ihanganye n’ingabo za Adolf Hitler mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi yose (war effort/ effort de guerre). Uwo musanzu wari ugizwe n’ibiribwa n’amatungo.

Abanyarwanda batangaga inka ,ibishyimbo, amasaka amashaza   byo kugaburira abasirikare b’abanyekongo ndetse n’abakozi bo mu birombe byo muri Congo. Usibye ibiribwa n’amatungo, umusanzu w’Abanyarwanda muri iyo ntambara wari ugizwe n’imirimo y’ agahato irimo guharura imihanda, kubumba amatafari, gutwara imizigo  y’abakoloni, gukora mu birombe bya zahabu  na coltan, guhinga ibireti byakoreshwaga mu gutunganya umuti  wica udukoko .

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yiswe amazina  menshi bitewe n’ubukana yagiye igaragaza mu turere dutandukanye tw’u Rwanda. Mu majyepfo yiswe Ruzagayura. Mu duce dutandukanye tw’uburasirazuba yiswe Rujukundi, Rwanyirarushenyi,Rwakinyebuye   cyangwa se Rwakabetezi.

Mu majyaruguru, mu bice bya za Gisenyi na Ruhengeri   yisweRudakangwimishanana , Rugaragazabadakekwa na Nyirahuku . Hagati mu gihugu ndetse n’amajyaruguru y’iburasirazuba, mu bice bya Byumba , iyo nzara yari izwi ka Matemane. Mu burengerazuba, muri territoire ya Kibuye  , yiswe Gahoro.

Iyo nzara yagize ubukana bwinshi mu majyaruguru, mu burasirazuba no mu majyepfo y’igihugu. Mu bice bya Cyangugu niho honyine hatigeze hahura n’iyo nzara ku mpamvu z’ikirere cyaho. Ikindi, iyo ntara yari yegeranye na Congo Mbiligi ku buryo itari kugira ikibazo cyo kubura ibiribwa. Ahubwo yakiraga abantu bavuye mu zindi ntara nka Astrida   cyangwa se Gisenyi.

Mu gihe cya Ruzagayura, uduce tw’imisozi ihanamye, uduce tw’ubutaka busharira, uduce turangwamo isuri nitwo twababaye cyane kurusha utundi. Muri utwo duce kimwe n’ahandi,abaturage  barazahaye ku buryo benshi bamaraga iminsi 2 cyangwa se 3 batariye. Benshi inzara yarabicaga. Abaryaga, wasangaga barya inguri  (imizi y’insina), imizi y’ibiti,amareberebe , umutsima uvuye mu ifu ya barakatsi (acacia) cyangwa se y’intembe y’insina. Iyo ndyo idasanzwe nta gushidikanya ko nayo yishe abantu benshi muri icyo gihe.

Abafite agatege barasuhukaga bakajya gushaka aho bakura ibiribwa cyangwa se aho bagurana ibikoresho byabo n’ibiribwa. Benshi wasangaga barananutse nk’uko bigaragara ku mafoto y’icyo gihe. Babitaga ingarisi kubera uko babaga barashizemo. Izo « ngarisi » kimwe n’imirambo y’abitabye Imana  biri mu bintu byaranze iyo nzara. Iyo mirambo yasangwaga hafi y’imihanda, mu mirima, mu mashyamba, ku nkengero z’inzuzi n’ahandi henshi.

Umuntu yakwibaza ati ese ni iki abayobozi b’abakoloni bakoze mu kuyirwanya ? Ese ni iki Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa n’abatware bakoze mu kuyihashya ? Ese ni iki abamisiyoneri bakoze mu kuyirwanya ? Ese iyo nzara yagize izihe ngaruka ku banyarwanda ?

 

INGARUKA ZATEWE N’INZARA YA RUZAGAYURA 1943-1944 MU RWANDA

 

Nyuma y’uko hafashwe ingamba   zinyuranye zo kurwanya inzara ya Ruzagayura, abaturage babishishikarijwemo n’abategetsi b’abakoloni ndetse n’abatware bahinganye ubwira. Ibyo byatumye inzara irangira, nyamara yasigiye Abanyarwanda benshi ingaruka ziremereye.

Guhera mu ntangiriro z’i 1944, Abanyarwanda bahinze ibishyimbo, amashaza, ibirayi, imyumbati n’ibijumba. Kubera uburumbuke bw’imvura yaguye mu buryo buhagije, umusaruro wariyongereye, Ibigega byongera guhunikwamo, abari barasuhutse bagaruka mu ngo zabo. Ubwo abamisiyoneri bahagaritse gutanga amafunguro . Inkambi z’ingarisi zirafungwa, Nuko ahagana muri Nyakanga 1944, abategetsi b’abakoloni bahagarika kohereza amakamyo y’ibiribwa mu Rwanda. Mu mpera z’umwaka w’i 1944, aba aribwo hatangazwa ko inzara yarangiye mu gihugu.

N’ubwo inzara ya Ruzagayura yamaze umwaka umwe, yahitanye abantu benshi cyane. Abamisiyoneri b’abagatolika batangaje muri raporo ngarukamwaka yo hagati y’i 1939 n’i 1945, ko u Rwanda rwatakaje abantu bagera ku 300 000, harimo n’abasuhukiye mu bindi bihugu nka Tanganyika, Uganda na Congo Mbiligi. Muri iyo raporo bavugaga ko abasuhutse bageraga ku 75 000.

Iyo mibare yaturutse muri raporo z’abategetsi b’Ababiligi, nabo bayihawe n’abatware b’Abanyarwanda. Gusa nk’uko nabo babyivugira, ababaruraga bibagirwaga rimwe na rimwe kubara abana, abagore, abarwayi n’abasheshakanguhe bapfuye cyangwa se bahunze iyo nzara. Ibyo bituma rero umuntu yibaza niba iyo nzara itaba yarahitanye abantu barenga umubare w’abatangajwe muri iyo raporo !

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yangije kandi byinshi, itera n’ubujura bukabije mu gihugu. Ubwo bujura bwakwiye mu turere twose tw’u Rwanda, cyane cyane utwari twarayogojwe n’inzara. Bwakorwaga n’ingeri zose. z’Abanyarwanda : Abana, abagabo, abagore, abafundi, abakozi b’abapadiri bibaga ibiribwa mu mirima y’abaturage, mu bubiko bwa misiyoni, mu ngo z’abaturage n’ahandi hantu henshi. Mu turere tumwe na tumwe tw’u Rwanda, nko muri teritwari ya Gisenyi , ubwo bujura bwafashe indi ntera kugera aho abaturage  batatinyaga gutega ku nzira bagenzi babo bavuye kuri za misiyoni bakabagusha mu gico cyabo (ambush, embuscade), maze bakabambura ibiribwa bahawe.

Ibyo byateje umutekano muke mu gihugu, bizana urwikekwe n’umujinya mwinshi mu Banyarwanda. Ahanini, uwo mujinya waturukaga ku bukana bw’inzara no ku buremere bw’umusanzu watangwaga n’Abanyarwanda. Muri uwo musanzu niho habarizwaga imirimo y’agatunabwene. Muri iyo mirimo, Abanyarwanda bakubitwaga ikiboko ubutitsa. Ibyo byatumye bijundika abatware n’abategetsi b’Ababiligi. Abatware batakubitaga abaturage ikiboko barahanwaga. Aha twavuga nk’abatware François Rwabutogo, wo mu Buganza na Simon Nyiringondo wo mu Mirenge, bahanishijwe kunyagwa inka zabo kubera ko batakubise abo bayoboye cyangwa se ngo babakoreshe mu bundi buryo bukarishye.


Abatware nabo bageze aho barakarira cyane Ababiligi kubera ibyo babakoreshaga.Abanyarwanda  barakariye kandi abamisiyoneri kubera ko bananirwaga kubavugira, ahubwo ugasanga bafatanya n’abategetsi b’Ababiligi mu gukarishya imibereho yabo. Uwo mujinya watumye ndetse Abanyarwanda bifuza guhindurirwa igihugu kibakoloniza. Bamwe muri bo batangiye icyo gihe gutekereza kurwanirira ubwigenge n’ubusugire by’igihugu cyabo.

 

Imvano y’inkuru n’ifoto : Internet

 

 

 

Ibikorwa byagahato byatewe n'impamvu y'ingenzi ikurikira.

 Abakoloni bari bagamije mbere ya byose inyungu zabo zo kuvoma ibintu binyuranye bakoresheje Abanyarwanda. Bamwe bakagomba kubafasha mu butegetsi, bakageza ku baturage amabwiriza y'Abazungu kandi bakareba niba yubahirizwa. Abatabikoze bagahanwa; ndetse n'abatware habagaho ubwo bakubitwa n'Abazungu. Abandi (ni ukuvuga abategekwagwa) ibyo bikorwa by'agahato byarabavunnye bikabije. Ababiligi bari bafite ibitekerezo bibi baheraho muri uko gukandamiza Abanyarwanda:

 • Basuzuguraga umwirabura ku mpamvu nyinshi zirimo izingizi ebyiri: ngo umwirabura ni igicucu nta bwenge agira n'ikimenyimenyi n'uko adashobora kwibwiriza icyamugirira akamaro ngo agikore; ngo ni umunebwe kabuhariwe ku buryo agomba guhatirwa gukora byaba ngombwa akabikubitirwa.

 • Ababiligi ntibashakaga gutanga amafaranga yabo ngo bateze igihugu imbere. Ibyo byaterwaga n'uko bari bazi ko igihugu cy'u Rwanda ari indagizo ya SDN na ONU, amaherezo bazareka kurutegeka. Ikindi mu buryo bwo gucunga ubukungu n'imari, bazi ko ari ngombwa gushobora bike ugamije inyungu nyinshi. Kubera iyo mpamvu bakoresheje Abanyarwanda nta mafaranga menshi ya Leta mbiligi bakoresheje. Amafaranga hafi yose yakoreshejwe yavaga mu maboko y'abaturage, cyangwa ba nyiri ayo maboko bagakora badahembwa, abatware bagahembwa amafaranga avuye mu misoro.

 • Ibyo bikorwa byagahato, umuturage wese yumvaga imvune yabyo, akumva ububi bw'ako gahato, kabone n'ubwo kabaga kagamije kumufasha kubona ibimutunga nko guhinga imyumbati, ibijumba, n'ibindi.

1.         AKAZI (corvee/forced labour)

Tubanze dusuzume icyo aricyo. Akazi byari Ibikorwa byagahato bidahemberwa, byazanywe n'ubutegetsi bwite bw'Abazungu.

Ingero z'ibyakorwaga: - gukora imihanda; - gutera amashyamba (abasore 300 bagombaga gutera nibura hectare imwe y'inturusu mu bya 1930); - kubaka amazu y'ubutegetsi no gutwara ibikoresho (ibiti, amatafari); - gucukura imiringoti, nb. 24.

Abakoraga akazi ni bande? Ni abagabo basoraga. Mu bya 1930, ababazwaga imirimo ya Leta n'umusoro babitaga "Homme Adulte Valide (H.A.V)": ni ukuvuga abasore n'abagabo bafite ingufu. Hamwe na hamwe Abatwa nta kazi babasabaga gukora, kimwe n'uko batabarurwaga. Hari ikindi cyiciro amategeko y'akazi yasoneraga: ni abo bitaga "les Notables" bikavuga Abanyacyubahiro bashyikiranaga n'abatware n'umwami, abakoreraga Abazungu ari aba Leta ari n'abanyamadini, abarimu, abakuru b'inama, akenshi n'ababaga batuye mu cyo bitaga "centres extra-coutumiers", ni ukuvuga abasirimu barimo n'abanyamahanga b'abirabura.

Abakoreshaga akazi: Ku bw'Abazungu abakoreshaga ku mugaragaro akazi ni umwami, abashefu n'abasushefu. Ariko mu by'ukuri, mu migirire ya buri munsi, akazi kakoreshwaga cyane cyane n'ibirongozi n' abamotsi.

ibibi by'akazi, Akazi kakoreshejwe ku gitugu, nkeke yo guhamagarwa buri gihe kukajyaho no kutagira umunsi n'umwe umuturage yabaga azi ko yakora gahunda ashaka.

Ububi bw'akazi kiyongera ku musoro n'ibindi bikorwa by'agahato nka shiku byatumye Abanyarwanda benshi bahunga ingoma mbiligi bajya cyane cyane Uganda bajya gupagasa; Ni ukuvuga gushaka umusoro, akenda, n’utundi tuntu.

2.           UBURETWA

 Uburetwa ni imirimo abategekwa bakoreraga abategetsi biturutse kuri iryo sano ryonyine ry'ubutegetsi cyangwa abakene bakoreraga abakire, kandi iyo mirimo ntigire ibihembo.

 Imirimo y'uburetwa yari iyihe? Hari abakunze kwitiranya mu nyandiko zabo uburetwa n'ikoro (ryaba iry'umuheto cyangwa iry'ubutaka). Hari n'abagiye bitiranya uburetwa n'ubuhake cyangwa akazi k'igihe cy'Abazungu. Mu byukuri imirimo y'ingenzi yakorerwaga umutegetsi mbere y'Abazungu ni iyi: guhinga, kuba (urugero hari abavaga i Bugoyi bakajya kubaka ibwami), kurarira, gucana ibishyito, gusenya (gushaka inkwi), kuvoma, gukuka no guheka.

 Uburetwa bwadutse ryari? Mu byukuri ntibyoroshye kumenya ku buryo budashidikanywa igihe uburetwa bwadukiye mu Rwanda. Hari abagiye bemeza ko uburetwa ari ubwo ku ngoma ya Rwabugili (Kimanuka Tharcisse, Uburetwa et akazi au Marangara de 1916 à 1959, Memoire de licence, Ruhengeri, 1983).

 Hari n'abandi bemeza ko uburetwa bwazanywe n'Abazungu; bati n'ikimenyimenyi ni iryo jambo uburetwa rikomoka ku giswahile "kuleta", cyangwa ku gifaransa "l'Etat" cyabyaye "uburetwa" ari byo kuvuga "ni ibya Leta".

 Birashoboka kandi ko iryo jambo riva ku kinyarwanda cya kera, nk'uko Inkoranyamagambo (DIMO: dictionnaire monolingue) ya I.R.S.T. (Butare) ibyerekana: handitsemo ko "uburetwa" ari ijambo rishaje ryavugaga "imibyizi umuretwa (cg. Ikiretwa) yakoraga ku mutware w'ubutaka". Iyo nkoranyamagambo itanga n'umugani ngo "umusozi w'uburetwa ukama kare.

3.           SHIKU

Icyo iryo jambo rivuga Shiku ni ahantu bahingaga ku gahato imirimo (ibipimo) yagenwe n'ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni kandi igahingwamo imyaka yemejwe n'ubwo butegetsi ngo izarwanye inzara.

Shiku bivuga n'umurimo ubwawo wo guhinga ku gahato bene iyo mirimo Imyaka yahingwaga ni ibijumba n'imyumbati. Ijambo shiku rikomoka ku nshinga "gushikura", mu byerekeye ubuhinzi bikavuga guhingisha isuka ukurura n'ingufu ahantu h'umushike (Adiaenssens J., Le droit foncier au Rwanda, Butare, 1962, P.61).

Ariko shiku yashoboraga no guhingwa ku gasi (ku mpama), ngombwa bikaba kwegera umuhanda cyangwa aho witegeye. Kwegera umuhanda kwari ukugirango umutegetsi w'umuzungu cyangwa shefu bashime umwete wa sushefu w'aho hantu, banamuhe amanota.

Shiku yari ifite irindi zina: habagaho ubwo bayitaga "akajagari" bigashaka kuvuga urusange rw'imirima yahingwagamo n'abantu benshi, ariko buri muntu akagira igipande/icyate cye. Icyo gipande cyari icye mu gihe uwahahingaga atari yasarura, kuko iyo yamaraga gusarura habaga aha susheferi.

Igihe shiku yatangiriye, Amashiku yatangiye gukoreshwa mu mwaka wa 1926, ageragezwa imyaka ine yose.

Akamaro ka shiku n'ububi bwayo, Abakoloni bari barategetse shiku kubera inyungu bwite z'abaturage: twibuke ko mu mwaka 1924-1925, inzara bise gakwege yaciye ibintu. Abazungu bibwiraga ko shiku izakemura ikibazo cy'inzara ku buryo budasubirwaho.

Ibyo ari byo byose shiku yabaye ikintu cyanzwe cyane n'abaturage. Yatwaraga ingufu nyinshi ku musaruro muke, ndetse rimwe na rimwe wa ntawo.

4.          UMUGOGORO

 Umugogoro ni inka yatangwaga n'umuturage cyangwa umuryango, ikajya gukamirwa umuzungu (ndetse n'abamuherekeje) aho yabaga acumbitse ku nkambi. Umugogoro byavugwa nki gikorwa cyo kujyana inka. Bavugaga: kujya ku mugogoro.

 Inka y'umugogoro yagiraga n'ibindi biyiherekeza bitangwa n'abaturage: inkoko, amagi, ibitoke... Uwategekaga ko batanga umugogoro n'ibiwuherekeza akenshi abinyujije kirongozi nacyo kikabibwira umumotsi ni sushefu.

5.         IKAWA

Aba mbere badukanye ikawa mu Rwanda ni Abapadiri bera. Abo ba misiyoneri bari bakeneye ikawa yo kunywa. Guhera mu mwaka wa 1903 nibwo batangiye kuyihinga muri  misiyoni ya Mibirizi, nyuma ikwira buhoro buhoro mu gihugu.

Ariko ikawa yatangiye kwamamara mu bya 1925, aho ubutegetsi bw'Ababiligi butegetse abaturage kuyihinga. Guhera mu myaka 1933/1934, ni bwo Abanyarwanda batangiye guhinga ikawa ku itegeko n'ubwo hari ababikoraga ku bushake buke kubera inyungu babibonagamo.

Ibindi bikorwa by ‘agahato twavuga nk ‘umusoro w’Abazungu ( Ababiligi) wadutse 1917 kugeza 1927, Umusoro wabazwaga buri musore cyangwa buri mugabo muzima (H.A.V) agatanga amafaranga atatu n'urumiya (3,50 francs). . Ububi bw'umusoro wa gikoloni (1916-1962) Umusoro wagiye wiyongera udakurikijwe ubukungu bw'abawubazwa. Iyo Abanyarwanda batubahirizaga ibyo bikorwa bya gahato twavuze haruguru bahanishwaga ikiboko ibicye byari ibiboko umunani, ihazabu (amande/fine) yagendaga mu mafaranga akenshi. Gufungwa: Gufungwa iminsi, amezi cyangwa imyaka byazanywe n'Abazungu. Kunyagwa: ni ukwamburwa ubutegetsi kw’Abashefu n'Abasushefu ndetse no gucibwa.

Imvano y’inkuru : Igitabo” UBUMWE BW'ABANYARWANDA ~ MBERE Y'ABAZUNGU N'IGIHE CY'UBUKOLONI ~ MU GIHE CYA REPUBULIKA YA MBERE” Cyasohotse 1999.

 

 

Yitwa TWAGIRAYEZU Yves, Ni Umunyarwanda w’ umunyamateka. Muri iki gihe akorera mu Kigo cy’ Igihugu Gishinzwe Ishyinguranyandiko na Serivisi z’Inkoranyabitabo (RALSA) kibarizwa muri Ministeri y’ Urubyiruko n’ Umuco, mu gashami kacyo k’Ishyinguranyandiko y’ Igihugu (National Archives).

Atuye mu Ntara y’ Amajyepfo mu Karere ka Muhanga. Mu buzima busanzwe akunda kubaho ubuzima butuje, butamubangamiye kandi butabangamiye abandi, baba abo babana, abo bakorana ndetse n’abandi bahurira mu bikorwa bya buri munsi, kandi agakunda ubufatanye n’abandi.

Akunda kandi gukurikira amakuru areba u Rwanda muri rusange.

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

1.Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda ?

Mu kigero cy’imyaka ngezemo, navuga ko maze gutembera henshi mu Rwanda mu bihe bitandukanye, ariko aho navuga mperuka mu bihe bya vuba ni i Rubavu ku Kivu n’amashyuza y’aho no ku kiyaga cya Muhazi.

2.Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Biragoye k’umunyamateka nkanjye kuvuga ko nkunda umuntu uyu n’uyu cyangwa iki n’iki mu mateka y’u Rwanda kuko kuri jye, umuntu wese uvugwa mu mateka (historical person) cyangwa ufite ibikorwa byasigaye mu mateka aba afite agaciro gakomeye kuri jye. Ariko mu gusubiza ikibazo uko kibajijwe, reka mvuge ko umuntu nkunda mu mateka y’u Rwanda ni MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA (Umwami) na Padiri Alexis KAGAME. Impamvu nkunda Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ni ukubera ibikorwa n’ibyemezo bye mu gihe yari aganje ku ngoma. Hanyuma kandi Padiri Alexis KAGAME mukundira ko yashyize amateka mu nyandiko, ibitabo bye ni isooko y’amakuru menshi ku mateka y’u Rwanda. Ikintu nzirikana mu mateka, ni ibihe byo kubohora igihugu ubwo Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi 1994 mu Rwanda.

3.Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda?

Mu karere ka Nyagatare ahitwa i Mimuli hari Urugo rw’ umuhigo rw’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa narahasuye haranshimisha.

4. Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda kurya igitoki gitekanye n’ibishyimbo kirimo imboga cyane cyane dodo, imyumbati igeretse ku bishyimbo nayo ni ifunguro nkunda.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Muri iki gihe sinkinywa inzoga, ariko mbere urwagwa rwiza rwa bitoki nasomagaho.

6. Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Icya mbere ni ibindanga (ibyangombwa), birumvikana n’amafaranga yo kwirengera aho ngiye kuko usanga gutwara impamba bigoye, ubundi kandi nkagira agakapu gato nshyiramo nk’icyo kwifubika, ingofero, ecouteurs n’utundi dukoresho umuntu akenera iyo atari mu rugo iwe.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Buriya nkunda itorero Urugangazi ryabaga muri Musée i Huye ariko simperutse kubona aho riseruka.

8. Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

I Karongi ahagana ku Kiyaga cya Kivu ni heza ndahakunda kubera imiterere yaho usanga hari amazi y’ikiyaga, ibirwa bito byo mu mazi n’uburyo ikiyaga kigenda kinjiranamo n’imisozi.

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda,ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda?Kubera iki?

Iyo ngana mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, nkoresha cyane Volcano Express cyangwa Horizon Express kubera ko ni ibigo byombi bitanga serivisi nziza mu gutwara abagenzi.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi, umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Umuhanzi Rugamba Spiriyani (n’Amasimbi n’Amakombe) mu ndirimbo ze zose.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

Gutura ni mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo by’umwihariko mu karere ka Muhanga kuko hagendeka, ni hafi ya Kigali kandi no mu byo umuntu akenera hafi ya byose biboneka muri Muhanga mu buryo bworoshye.

12. Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Ni FESPAD, Iserukiramuco ry’ imbyino nyafurika rihuza imico itandukanye bigashimisha.

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

Numva natembera muri Kenya kubera ko nibwira ko bakomeye ku mutungo kamere no ku muco wabo.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka cyangwa nyaburanga mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Ni muri Pariki ya Nyungwe.

15. Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyu mwaka wa 2020?

Uyu mwaka ntaho nteganya gutemberera kubera ibibazo by’ihungabana ry’ubukungu muri rusange ariko no kuri jye by’umwihariko.

Murakoze.

Murakoze.

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