«Baramubaza ati: «Ngali».'ni umugani, baca iyo babonye umuntu babaza akanina, nk'utabyitayeho, akanga gusubiza

Wakomotse kuri Ngali na Runyotwe bo ku Mukingo; ahasaga umwaka w'i 1400. Hari ku ngoma ya Mibambwe Sekarongoro, ari mu Ruhango na Nangingare h'i Mutakara na Nyamagana, hakaba abana babiri bavuka mu miryango ituranye kandi, yuzura cyane, bituma n'abo buzura bakanaragirana amatungo; umwe yitwaga Ngali, undi akitwa Runyotwe.

Barabana baruzura mu bwana, bamaze guca akenge Ngali akurana imico myiza, na ho Runyotwe atangira ingeso z' uburyarya; batashya inkwi, Runyotwe akandura iza Ngali. Ngali yagana aho yari yanditse inkwi ze, agasanga Runyotwe yazanduye, yamubaza, Runyotwe, ati: Sinzi aho zagiye. Bacukura ibijumba bakotsa, Runyotwe akuhura Ngali, yamara gutirimuka akabyiba. Ngali yagaruka akabiheba bikamubabaza.

Nuko Ngali amaze kwitegereza iyo migirire ya Runyotwe basobanura amatungo, umwe aragira ukwe undi ukwe. Baba aho bamaze no kuba ingaragu bakomeza kwangana, kugeza igihe baba abagabo. Bamaze kubaka Runyotwe akomeza ya ngeso y' ubusambo; aba umushimusi.

Amaze kuba impangu y'umujura atangira kunywana n'abanyakabagali na bo b'abashimusi. Bukeye ajya mu Busanza naho ahashaka izindi nshuti baranywana. Ajya ku Mayaga no mu Nduga, naho arahanywana.

Yiba inka mu Kabagali akazigurana n' inshuti zo ku Mayaga. Iyo aguranye akayijyana iwe ku Mukingo na Mwanabili; mbese akomeza kubigenza atyo, inka arazigwiza. Abonye zimaze guca ibikumbi, na rubanda rumaze kumuhurahura, agira ubwoba aribaza ati "Izi nka ntunze zingana zitya ntagira umpatse zizarinkorera. Arikora n'inyana y' ishashi, ayitura Kamegeli ( uyu witiriwe urutare rwa Kamegeli), wari umutware wa Mibambwe; amusaba kuzamumusohozaho.

Kamegeli inka arayakira, bukeye aramujyana amusohoza kuri Mibambwe. Ni ushohojwe rero n' umutoni! Mibambwe aherako, amugabira inka ayijyana iwe ku Mukingo ; ijya muri za njuramo. Runyotwe arakunda yitwa umugaragu w'umwami ahakwa nk'abandi.

Haciyeho iminsi ingeso y'ubushimusi irubura; Runyotwe yiba mu nka z'intarama za Mibambwe. Bakurikiye urwara barugeza ku Mukingo inyuma y'urugo rwe. Induru ziravuga, barahurura: mu bahuruye hazamo Ngali. Ingabo ziroha mu rugo kwa Runyotwe zisanga inyama mbisi n'izitetse n'iziranzitse (imiranzi). Runyotwe bamuta ku ngoyi bamushyira Mibambwe mu Ruhango.

Bamugejejeyo baramuboha baramudanangira. Ariko aruma gihwa ntiyakoma. Bamubaza abandi bibanye akabihorera. Hanyuma ingoyi imaze kumurembya imwibutsa umwanzi we Ngali, ahitamo kutamusiga imusozi. Bongeye gukaza ingoyi, bati: «Wibana na nde? Noneho abumbura umunwa, ati: «Ngali!» Baramukubita bati: "Vuga abo mwibana" Yajya gusubiza ati: «Ngali»,ntagire ikindi avuga!

Bikomeza bityo; bigeze aho ibwami babaza abari aho icyo Runyotwe ashaka kuvuga; bati: «Ko tumubaza tukamushima ntagire ikindi avuga kitari ngali, ngali ni iki ?» Abazi uwo mugabo, bati: «Ni umuntu baturanye, ahari ubanza ariwe bibana; kandi aho ni n'umutunzi nka we, baba bibana koko!»

Ubwo Ngali bamufatira aho, bamubohana na Runyotwe. Bamubajije ko bibana koko, aragaramba; yanga gutakira umushyo nk' umushwi w'inkoko, kuko yabonaga yashyikiriwe.

Nuko ibwami batanga Runyotwe na Ngali bombi; ariko Ngali azize amaherere. Kuva ubwo rero bagira icyo babaza umuntu akanina nk' utabyitayeho bakamwuririraho ya nyikirizo ya Runyotwe, y' ubwo bamubazaga, ati: «Ngali».

Kwigira akangali (aka ngali = Kunanirana); na byo ni aho byaturutse, kuko bashimuje Ngali ngo avuge akagaramba akabaninira.

" Kubaza umuntu ati: «Ngali!» = Kunangira."

 

Yitwa Mandela Eric ni Umusore w’Umunyarwanda aba mu mujyi wa Kigali akaba akora mu kigo gishinzwe gute mbereza bamukerarugendo kitwa Primates Safaris.

 

Dore Ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com ku muco n’amateka n’ubukerarugendo by’u Rwanda.

 

 

1.   Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda?

Muri Parike y’igihugu ya Kagera, Nyungwe no mu Birunga.

2. Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Umuntu nzirikana mu matekay’u Rwanda ni Ndabaga.

3. Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda?

Mperuka gutemberera ku kiyaga cya Kivu mu karere ka Karongi.

4.Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Ifunguro rya kinyarwanda nkunda ni Imyumbati.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda Amata.

6.Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Nkunda kwitwaza imyenda yoroheje.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda Inganzongari.

8.Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

Nakunze muri Parike y’ibirunga.

9. Ujya mu ntaraz’u Rwanda, ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda?Kubera iki?

Nkunda Volcano safaris kubera ko yihuta kandi imeze neza.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi, umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Nkunda Inema art.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda, wahitamo hehe ?Kuberaiki?

Nahitamo gutura I kigali kubera ko hari ibikorwa remezo byose.

12.Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Nkunda Iwacu na Muzika.

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

Ni ikirwa cya Mauritius kubera umucanga waho.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Ni fuza kugera ku Mulindi wa Byumba.

15.Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyumwaka wa 2020?

Kuri Muhazi.

 

Murakoze cyane.

Murakoze Namwe.

 

Uyu mugani bawuca baca amarenga y’inama yanogejwe, ni bwo bagira bati: “Ihuriro ni i Huro.” Wakomotse ku nama umugabo Muberamfura w’i Kigese na Mibirizi (mu Karere ka Kamonyi, Intara y’amajyepfo) yagiriye inshuti ze Rugango na Murego, ahasaga umwaka w’1600. Ubwo Mibambwe Gisanura yari i Bumbogo bwa Huro h’i Mbirima, yohereje umuhungu we Mazimpaka gutura mu Nduga ngo ayitegeke binoze. Mazimpaka yahagurutse i Ruganda ataha i Rwahi, bukeye ataha i Rugobagoba arahacumbika, nijoro ingoma zirabikira bukeye zirabambura. Igihugu cyumvise ingoma, kirakaka, baza kureba ibyabaye, bahageze basanga ari Mazimpaka mwene Mibambwe. Baratarama, barahakwa burinda bucya ingoma zirinda kubambura. Kuva ubwo uwo murenge wa Rugobagaoba witwa umugina w’ingoma kugeza n’ubu. Aho Mazimpaka ahagurukiye aho i Rugobagaoba, ajya ku ijuru rya Kamonyi ahatanga ibibanza, arahubaka. Haciyeho iminsi, atanga abatware ba se batwaraga i Nduga: Kogoto w’i Nyakabungo ku Mugina wa Jenda; Kabugondo; Kaza Ka Nyabuseri w’i Gisitwe cya Gacurabwenge; Rugaryi rwa Bwaka i buhanga, bapfana na Mpaka Mpombo na bo bari abatware ba Gisanura mu Nduga.

Ngo byaba byaraturutse k’uko yababajije imihigo bajyaga bahigiraga se bamusanze i Bumbogo, bamusubiza ko bamurusha inka nziza. Na we ni ko kubatanga barimbukana n’urubyaro n’abatoni babo. Hasigaye umutware umwe bitaga Mugarura wari utuye i Kinyambi cya Rugarika ho muri Runda, na rubanda rugufi ruyoboka abatware bashya. Mu rupfu rw’abo batware, Kaza yari afite murumuna we witwaga Rugango; Kogoto afite mukuru we witwa Murego. Aba bombi baracika bihisha hamwe i Kigese na Mibirizi mu ishyamba ry’uruberanya rwa Gatogonyore, ku mugabo w’umuci w’umunyu witwaga Muberamfura. Uwo mugabo yajyaga atura umunyu Kogoto na Kaza, bakamuha ibimasa ariko bitari iby’ubuhake. Babana batyo kugeza mu ipfa ryabo. Muberamfura arababaza ati: “Niko se mwa bagabo mwe, nshimye ko mbahishe. Ariko se ko hari abaza gututira muri uru ruberanya no guca umunyu, bizageza ryari bitarankoza hasi?” Abagabo bati: “Twagira ko nta wundi muntu tuziranye?” Muberamfura arababwira ati: “Nabanye n’abavandimwe banyu babaruta banduta neza, none nanjye sinabahemukira. None rero reka mbagire inama, mfte mukuru wanjye witwa Mugenza utuye i Huro mu Bumbogo, ni umunyagikari wa Mibambwe kandi aratonnye, mubagejejeho yabahakirwa mugakira, ndetse ubwo abagome bapfuye mubonye ubuhake yakunamura icumu.” Baramubaza bati: “Ubwo se twagerayo dute kandi baduhiga?” Muberamfura ati: “Dore uko mungana mutyo, ntimubuze inshuti.

Umwe azace ukwe n’undi ukwe, nanjye nzaza ukwanjye, maze ihuriro ribe i Huro!” Ni uko inama barara bayinogeje, ku wundi munsi bugorobye Rugango na Murego bashyira nzira, igicuku kiniha bageze mu Birembo bya Ngamba (mu karere ka Kamonyi) kwa munywanyi wabo witwaga Mbuguje. Barara aho, bamutekerereza ikibagenza. Muberamfura na we yaboneje ijoro ryose, bucya ageze i Huro kwa mukuru we witwa Mugenza. Amutekerereza ko Kaza na Kogoto bamutunze, ati: “None bagize ibygo baratangwa, abavandimwe babo banshikiraho, ubu nabazanye ngo ubahakirwe kuri Gisanura niba rubanda batabatsinze mu nzira dore ko twaje intage ngo tutamenyekana.” Mugenza arabyemera, Murego na Rugango baje basanga Muberamfura ku muharuro kwa Mugenza. Abajyana mu rugo barabafungurira, birangiye babajyana kwa Gisanura, arabamusaba na we yemera kubarokora. Yohereza intumwa ku ijuru yo kunamura icumu, igezeyo Mazimpaka ashyira ingoma ku nama arunamura. Ni uko Murego na Rugango bakira batyo bakijijwe na Muberamfura wabanye neza n’abavandimwe babo. Kuva ubwo ya nama yabagiriye yo kugenda intage ihuriro rikaba i Huro, rubanda bayihindura umugani ucibwa mu marenga y’impuzamugambi. Ihuriro ni i Huro=Gucanirana amarenga y’umugambi wanogejwe.

Yitwa NTIRUSHWA Anaclet ni Umumyarwanda umunyamakuru ku Ibendera TV online n’umwanditsi mukuru wa UKURI.RW, aba I Kigali mu Karere ka Gasabo.

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

 

1.Ni hehe wa tembereye mu Rwanda?

Natembereye I Rubavu.

2. Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu matekay’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Nkunda umuganura.

3. Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda ?

Natembereye I Rubavu ku mazi y’amashyuza.

4.Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda kurya Ibitoki.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda Umutobe.

6.Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Nitwaza telefoni.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Ntaryo;

8.Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze ?

Natembereye ku Kivu cyo ku Gisenyi.

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda, ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda ?Kubera iki?

Nkunda Volcano Express kubera ko ihaguruka buri minota 15 kandi bagerageza kubahiriza igihe.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi ,umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Nkunda MASAMBA indirimbo yise Rudasumbwa ivuga ku butwari umuntu yakabaye agira.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

Nahitamo gutura I Kigali kubera ko Umuntu amenya ibye n’undi akamenya ibye bitandukanye no mu cyaro aho buri wese aba arebuzwa mugenzi we.

12.Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Ntaryo.

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

Ni igihugu cya Afrika y’epfo Kubera ko Nelson MANDELA ariho yavukiye akaba intwari mu kurwanya irondaruhu.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Ni fuza kugera ku Mulindi w’intwali.

15.Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyumwaka wa 2020?

Sindabipanga.

 

Murakoze

Murakoze cyane.

 

 

Umudage wa mbere wabonanye n’umwami w’u Rwanda Kigeri IV Rwabugiri, ni Comte Von Götzen mu w’1884, asanze umwami i Kageyo (Komini Ramba) amuyoboweho na mwene Rwabugiri, Sharangabo yari akuye mu Buganza (Rwamagana).

Nyuma y’aho Abadage bakomeje kuzenguruka u Rwanda, bakora ubushakashatsi nka Kandt (bise Kanayoge) wabaye Rezida wa mbere w’umudage mu Rwanda, agataha umurwa wa Kigali mu w’1908, abandi bahazaga baturutse i Bujumbura, bazanywe no gutanga umutekano w’abivumbagatanya badashaka Musinga. Mu w’1900 niho Abapadiri ba mbere b’Abagatolika baje mu Rwanda. Ni abo mu mulyango w’Abapadiri bera. Batashye i Save bavuye kuhasaba ibwami.

Abamisiyoneri ba mbere b’Abaporoso baje mu Rwanda mu w’1907, ni abo mu itorero rya Luteri. Ni bo bashinze za Misiyoni zikurikira : Kirinda, Rubengera na Remera rya Rukoma. Bavuye mu Rwanda mu w’1916, bene wabo Abadage baneshejwe n’Ababiligi mu Rwanda. Nyuma, Misiyoni yabo yaje kuvamo Itorero ry’Abaperesipiteriyani mu Rwanda.

Umupaka w’amajyaruguru

Mu mwaka w’1910, i Buruseli mu Bubiligi habaye inama yari irimo Abongereza, Abadage n’Ababiligi, ngo bagabane u Rwanda. Bahereye ku Kirunga cya Sabyinyo baca umurongo uzamutse ukagera ku kiyaga kitiriwe Eduwaridi, umwami w’Abongereza, undi bawuca intambike bakurikije uko ibirunga biteye. Bityo u Bubiligi bwegukana igice kiri mu majyaruguru ya Kivu nka za Gishari na Bwishya, hari n’Ijwi. U Bwongereza bwegukana Bufumbira (mu w’1928, bari bakivuga ngo ni u Rwanda rw’Abongereza). U Budage busigarana u Rwanda uko rumeze ubu.

Uko gutera imirwi igihugu byababaje Musinga cyane ndetse n’Abatutsi bahategekaga. Mu w’1912, ni ho Komisiyo yo gutera imbago ku mipaka yarangije akazi.

Uko Abadage bakoranye n’Umwami Musinga

 

Politiki y’ingenzi y’imitegekere y’Abadage yabaye iyo gushyigikira umwami w’u Rwanda n’abatware . Ibyo bigafasha Abadage kuboneza politiki ya “Protectorat” ijyana n’ubutegetsi buziguye. Birumvikana, kuko Abadage bari mbarwa. Uko gushyigikira no kwanga “akajagari” byatumye abasirikare b’abadage bagaba ibitero hirya no hino byo guhosha imyivumbagatanyo yo kurwanya Musinga.

Mu w’1902 bagabye igitero cyo kurwanya Rukara rwa Bishingwe washakaga ubwigenge bwa Gisaka yifashishije Abapadiri b’i Zaza. Mu w’1908 – 1909 bagabye igitero cyo guhashya Basebya, naho mu w’1911 – 1912 bagaba igitero cyo kurwanya Ndungutse bafatanyije n’ingabo z’ibwami (Lt. Gudovius, ari we bwana Lazima) na Rwubusisi.

Mu w’1910, Abadage bagabye igitero gikaze mu Murera (Ruhengeri) cyo guhorera Padiri Loupias, Umufaransa wari umaze kwicwa n’ingabo za Rukara rwa Bishingwe, uwo mupadiri yashakaga kuhashyigikira ubutegetsi bwa Musinga, akubitiraho no kwivanga mu by’Abarashi b’indwanyi, kandi icyo gihe yari kumwe n’umugaragu we umutwaje imbunda, ashaka kuyitabaza, baramutanga.

Mu w’1914, hadutse intambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Abadage mu Rwanda bashyigikiwe na Musinga hamwe n’ingabo ze zoherejwe ku rugamba bisha na bisha, zitwaga “Indugaruga” . Abaturage bo, uruhare rwabo rwabaye urwo kwikorera imitwaro no gutanga ibiribwa.

Mu w’1916 (Kamena), Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (bwana Tembasi) bakuyemo akabo karenge, bahunga Ababiligi babarushaga ubwinshi, kandi bari bunganiwe n’Abongereza. Ng’uko uko bavuye mu Rwanda. Musinga yarinze apfa agikumbuye Abadage.

 

Ku nshuro ya 16, Tariki ya 24 Nzeri 2020 habaye umuhango wo Kwita amazina abana b’ingagi 24. Ni umuhango wabaye hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga kubera icyorezo cya COVID-19.

Ni amazina ziswe n’abantu bakora ibikorwa bitandukanye, bahora hafi y’ingagi. Mu bantu bise amazina harimo;abarinda pariki, abayobora abakerarugendo, abavura ingagi, abashizwe kumenya aho ingagi ziri mu birunga ndetse n’abakinnyi ba Arsenal.

Ingagi ziswe amazina zikomoka mu miryango ya Pasika, Isaro, Akaramata, Mudakama, Ubufatanye n’abana batatu bo mu muryango wa kuryama.

Dore amazina yazo:

1. Kazeneza

2. Nkomezamihigo

3. Uwacu

4. Murengezi

5. Duhuze

6. Cyororoka

7. Umuyobozi

8. Indiri

9. Ubushobozi

10. Amarembo

11. Ihogoza

12. Umusanzu

13. Nkerabigwi

14. Impinduka

15. Ishya

16. Isezerano

17. Umuganga

18. Nyiramajyambere

19. Ikamba

20. Amabwiriza

21. Izabukuru

22. Myugariro (Ryiswe n’umukinnyi wa Arsenal Bernrd Leno)

23. Igitego (Ryiswe n’umukinnyi wa Arsenal Pierre –Emerick Aubameyang)

24. Iriza( Ryiswe n’umukinnyi wa Arsenal Hector Bellerin)

Ababiligi binjiye mu Rwanda baje barwanya Abadage mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Bari bayoboye abasirikare   benshi b’Abanyekongo bari baremye ingabo zitwa „Force Publique“

Binjiye muri kigali muri kamena 1916

Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (Tembasi) babonye ko bo ari bake, ko kandi bagiye kugwa mu rukubo, barahunga bagana iya Tanganyika n’u Burundi. Kuva mu w’1916 kugeza mu w’1925, u Rwanda kimwe n’u Burundi rwagize ubutegetsi bwa gisirikare bucungwa n’Ababiligi. Ariko mu mwaka w’1919, umuryango w’ibihugu (Société Des Nations SDN) waragije u Bubiligi ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Babikomatanyiriza hamwe byitwa Ruanda – Urundi, biba nk’intara imwe.

Mu w’1925, niho Inama ishinga amategeko y’u Bubiligi yafashe icyemezo, ishyiraho itegeko rigira Ruanda – Urundi nk’imwe mu ntara za Kongo mbiligi ariko Ruanda – Urundi ikagira akantu k’umwihariko.

 

Uko bakoranye n’ubwami

Mu ntangiriro, Ababiligi babanje kwishisha Musinga kandi na we ni uko. Mu w’1917, bashyizeho “Rezidansi” y’u Rwanda. Hategekaga Major Declerk. U Rwanda ubwo rwaciwemo segiteri eshatu muri uwo mwaka, ariko guhera mu w’1921, barucamo teritwari : teritwari y’uburengerazuba umurwa uba Rubengera, teritwari y’amajyaruguru umurwa uba Ruhengeri, teritwari ya Nyanza umurwa uba Nyanza na teritwari y’iburasirazuba umurwa uba Kigali.

Ibyo bice by’ubutaka byari bigamije korohereza ubutegetsi , cyane cyane ibyerekeye gushaka ibyangombwa nk’ibiryo. Mu w’1919, ni ho Ababiligi bashyizeho intara zibumbiye hamwe kandi zagombye gushingwa umutware basangaga akize kurusha abandi (ni ubukire ku nka no ku bagaragu).

Ubundi umusozi umwe washoboraga kuba utegekwa n’abatware benshi. Izo ntara ziganaga buke imitegekere ya Rwabugiri (Musinga we na Kanjogera bari baraciye igihugu mo uduce twinshi bakigaba kugira ngo bagwize abayoboke). Kuva mu w’1917 kugeza mu w’1931, Ababiligi batangiye kugongana n’ubutegetsi bwa cyami, kugira ngo bisanzure mu butegetsi bwa gikolonize bagiye barandura buhoro buhoro ibishyitsi by’ubwami mu ntera zikurikira :

1917: umwami bamwambuye uburenganzira bwo kwica. Musinga na Kanjogera bumvise ko bibarangiranye. Musinga yagize ati “ubwo ntagishoboye kwica abantu uko nshaka, sinkiri umwami”. Uwo mwaka nibwo Rezida, Major Declerk ategetse Musinga gusinya iteka riha buri Munyarwanda uburenganzira bwo kuyoboka idini yishakiye. Abahungukiye cyane ni ba Misiyoneri b’Abagatolika.

1922: umwami bamwatse ububasha mu bucamanza, Musinga yari aziko ari “Nyamugirubutangwa”(Mutavuguruzwa mu byemezo). Ababiligi bemeye ko mu murimo we wo guca imanza, azunganirwa n’umuzungu uhagarariye Rezida.

1923: umwami bamugabanyirije ububasha bwo kugaba imisozi. Muri uwo mwaka bamubujije gushyiraho abatware mu gihugu no kubanyaga uko ashaka, abatware b’intara na bo ntibashoboraga gushyiraho abasushefu bitabanje kunyura kuri Rezida.

1925: ubwiru bwavanyweho kimwe n’umuganura. Kimwe mu byo ubwiru bwari bushinzwe ni ukuboneza umuhango w’umuganura. Muri uwo mwaka, adiministrateri wa Nyanza yafashe icyemezo cyo “guca” Gashamura umutware w’Abiru, amucira i Gitega (Burundi). Bamuzizaga ko yari afite uruhare mu mitegekere no mu mibanire y’ibwami n’Abazungu. Mgr Classe na we uwo mugambi wo kwigizayo Gashamura yari awurimo.

Rwampungu, umuhungu wa Gashamura, bahise bamushyira mu ishuli riyoborwa n’Umubiligi, bityo “ubwiru” burazima kuko bari babuciye umutwe. Na Bandora wari umupfumu n’umujyanama w’ibwami, Ababiligi bamwirukanye ibwami. Nguko uko ibishyitsi by’ubwami byaranduwe, Musinga na Kanjogera bakabura amaboko yari abafatiye runini mu butegetsi bwabo, mbese basigara ari abami ku izina. Icyari gisigaye ni ukubikiza nabo ubwabo: mu w’1926, ubwami bwarakendereye nta ngufu bwari bufite.

1931: umwami Yuhi Musinga na nyina Kanjogera baciriwe i Kamembe, bava ku butegetsi, Ababiligi babifashijwemo na Mgr Classe, bashyiraho Rudahigwa, ndetse baramwiyimikira, bamwita Mutara (bakurikije inama z’uwo musenyeri). Rudahigwa bwakeye atangaza icyo bise “Irivuze umwami”: ngo abantu bose bazayoboke za misiyoni, ari byo kuvuga ngo bazayoboke Abapadiri.

 

Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi (1926-1928)

 

Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abatware batatu bari basanzwe bategeka ahantu hamwe. Abo batware ni aba:

“umutware w’ubutaka” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibihingwa n’ibiva mu myuga, akaburanisha n’ibyerekeye amasambu.

“umutware w’umukenke” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibikomoka ku nka, yakebaga ibikingi akanabitanga, abiha ufite inka zirenze eshanu.. Umutware w’umukenke nta bubasha yari afite bwo kuburanisha.

“umutware w’ingabo” : yabazwaga ibyerekeye itabaro n’imanza zerekeye ibikingi n’izindi mpamvu zashoboraga kuboneka hagati y’imiryango.

Hari ubwo byabagaho umuntu umwe akomatanya imirimo ibiri. Umuntu yavuga nka Rwabirinda rwa Rwogera yari umutware w’ubutaka n’umutware w’umukenke mu Mpara (Kinyaga), umuhutu Ndongozi se wa Basomingera na we yari abumbye iyo mirimo yombi mu Bwanacyambwe.

 Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi bwa rezida mortehan (1926)

Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abo batware batatu bari bafite ubutegetsi hirya no hino mu gihugu (nka Gashamura yategekaga igice cy’u Bumbogo, icy’u Buriza, icy’i Gisaka n’ibindi). Urwego rw’igiti (district) rwabaye nk’urusimburwa na Teritwari, urw’igikingi rusimburwa na za Susheferi. Hagati y’izo nzego zombi, Rezida Mortehan yunzemo urwego rwa Sheferi rutari rufite urundi rusa na rwo mu butegetsi bwa cyami.

 

Inkurikizi ziryo vugururwa

 

Imirimo y’ubutaka n’iy’inka yeguriwe umutware umwe rukumbi. Bene uwo mutware yahise agira ubutegetsi buremereye kandi bubumbiye hamwe, ni ubutegetsi bukomeye muri politiki no mu cyubahiro. Umutware yafashe intera nshyashya.

  • Uburyo bwa kera bwo kwitabaza umutware w’ingabo cyangwa undi mu by’imanza bwarazimiye.
  • Ubuhake bwongereye umurego : umutware mushya yagize uburyo bwo kubona abagaragu bashya, baturutse ahanini ku bashaka gusonerwa mu “kazi”. Abagaragu baturutse kuri icyo

           gitugu cya politiki ya gikolonize, bakomeje kwiyongera.

  • Amashuli n’ubutegetsi bw’abakoloni byatumye shefu na sushefu bakomera muri ubwo butegetsi bwa gikolonize. Akenshi kandi abatware bashya bari bafite icyizere cyo kuzaramba mu butegetsi : icyari ngombwa kwari ukumenya amayeri yo guhakirizwa ku bazungu, ari aba Leta, ari na ba Misiyoneri.

 Gahunda ya politike ya goverineri voisin (1930)

Guhamishaho no gushyigikira ubutegetsi busanzwe mu Rwanda, mu gihe butabangamiye amabwiriza ya kijyambere. Kugenzura cyane ubwo butegetsi kugira ngo budakabya mu byerekeye uburetwa n’amakoro. Kunyaga no gusimbura abatware badashoboye, bagasimbuzwa abakandida batanzwe ku bwumvikane bwagiranywe n’umwami buri gihe.

Kubumbira hamwe intara z’ubutegetsi, ku buryo ibikingi biri intage byatunganywa, bikegeranywa bitegekwa n’umuntu umwe. Abategetsi b’abazungu bagomba kwicengezamo igitekerezo ko, nta bufatanye bw’abategetsi kavukire, ubutegetsi bwa kinyamahanga bwagera aho bukabura imbaraga kandi bugasatirwa n’akajagari ko kutagira ubutegetsi.

 

Ababiligi

Mu mwaka w’1926, Minisitiri wa za Koloni mbiligi, ariwe Ludoviko Franck, yategetse ko Ababiligi muri Ruanda – Urundi bagomba gukurikiza politiki y’ubutegetsi buziguye (ni ubwifashisha abategetsi kavukire, ntibwivange mu baturage).

Yemeje ko byanze bikunze bagomba kwifashisha Abatutsi. Iyo politiki y’irondakoko yashyizwe mu bikorwa ku buryo bubiri : mu mashuri no mu butegetsi (administration). Mu rwego rwa politiki, Ababiligi ahanini ni bo bahaye u Rwanda isura rwaserukanye igihe cy’ubwigenge. Ariko hari n’uruhare rw’umuryango w’ibihugu ariwo “Société Des Nations“(SDN) kimwe n’urw’abatware .Ubutegetsi bwabo bwagize ibyiciro bitatu:

Icya mbere ni ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari (occupation militaire) 1916 – 1926

Icya kabiri ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo busesuye (mandat) 1926 – 1949

Icya gatatu ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo bucagase (tutelle) 1949 – 1962.

 

Rubanda ni abahanya; ni umugani baca iyo bashaka gutsindira umuntu ubugome badasobanuye uwo ari we; ni bwo bagira ngo: "Rubanda ni abahanya!" Wakomotse ku muja wa Mibambwe Sekarongoro witwaga Nyirabihanya muka Buyoyo w'i Nyarusave ku Itaba rya Bugoba i Rukoma (Gitarama); ahasaga umwaka w'i 1400.

Ku ngoma ya Mibambwe uwonguwo, hariho umugabo Buyoyo, sekuru wa Bunyereli bwa Muhozi mu Gishubi cya Muganza, akaba umunyamuhango mu Ntalindwa z'ibwami. Aho rero apfiriye asiga umugore we Nyirabihanya n'abana be bari mu muryango ukomeye cyane.

Nuko Buyoyo amaze gupfa, umugore we Nyirabihanya ajya kumubikira Mibambwe mu Ruhango rwa Kanyinya na Remera. Mibambwe amaze kubyumva, abaza Nyirabihanya ubwoko bwe. Undi, ati: "Ndi umuzigabakazi". Mibambwe yumvise ko Nyirabihanya ari ubwoko bwiza arishima. Urukundo rumutegeka kumugira umubambuzi wo gucunda, kuko abazigaba ari abase b'abasindi, ari bo banyiginya. Ubwo Nyirabihanya ahabwa umuhango wo kubambura nk'uko abandi bagore b'abazigaba n'abageserakazi ari bo babamburaga bacunda. Amaze guhabwa uwo muhango yiyuzuza na muka Mibambwe witwaga Nyirahondi (Hondi) ndetse ngo baranywana. Dore ko mbere n'abagore banywanaga!

Bimaze iminsi, Mibambwe aca iteka, ati: "Umuntu muto wese umaze guca akenge, muciriye mu Karambo ka Rukore". Ubwo abato bose bajyana mu Karambo ka Rukore; na bene Nyirabihanya batatu bato bajyana n'abandi basore. Haciyeho iminsi, Nyirabihanya ajya gusura abo bana be, agira ngo anabonereho urwaho rwo kwimenyereza Gahima ka Mibambwe, na nyina Matama wari warambagijwe mu bwiru, i Buha muri Tanzaniya.

Nuko Nyirabihanya amaze gutirimuka aho, abanzi be bamurega kuri nyirabuja Nyirahondi, bavuga ko yagiye gukeza mukeba we Matama. Aho Nyirabihanya ahindukiriye avuye mu Karambo, ageze mu Ruhango kwa Mibambwe, Nyirahondi aramutumiza ngo amwitabe. Nyirabihanya araza. Agitunguka, Nyirahondi aramubwira, ati: "Ntuzongere kugera aho ndi, uzagume mu Karambo !" Nyirabihanya amaze kubyumva atyo, ajya kumenyesha Mibambwe ko yaciwe mu rugo. Mibambwe aramuseka, ati: "Mbese waketse ko Nyirahondi ari we utegeka urugo rwanjye!"

Hashize iminsi, abana ba Mibambwe na Nyirahondi bavutse impanga barapfa. Rugengimanzi na Rugemintwaza. Ubwo igihugu gicika umugongo kubera abo bana b'umwami bavutse impanga bapfiriye rimwe. Uretse ko bari bene Mibambwe, Abanyarwanda bose barabakundaga, ku mpamvu z'imico yabo igeretseho no guhaka neza.

Nuko muri uwo mubabaro wa Nyirahondi uvanze n'urwango yanze Nyirabihanya, amuhimbira ubugome afatanije n'umutoni we witwaga Busanane wahoze ahakanywe na Buyoyo. Batangira gukwiza impuha zigera kuri Mibambwe, ngo Rugengimanzi na Rugemintwaza barozwe na Nyirabihanya. Inkuru imaze kwogera hose, Mibambwe arabirakarira, abibaza Nyirahondi, ati: "Numvise ngo abana banjye ntibishwe n'urupfu rusanzwe, ntiwambwira icyabishe?" Nyirahondi, ati: "Uretse kumbaza nkana se wowe ntukizi ?" Mibambwe agwa mu kantu. Nyirahondi abonye ko ababaye, yuririzamo, ati: "Ese ntuzi ko barozwe na wa mugirwa wawe Nyirabihanya ?" Mibambwe arinjirwa. Aherako atanga Nyirabihanya n'umuryango we wose, atarokoye na ba bana be bagiye mu Karambo kwa Gahima na Matama; umuryango wa Nyirabihanya urarimbuka.

Ariko izina rye risigaranwa n'agahwazi k'itaba (aka bita ikiryamo k'inzovu) kari hafi y'urugo rwe, yarakagize imbuga bahuriraho imyaka; gasigara kitwa Nyirabihanya. Busanane na we wamureganye na Hondi inshuti za Nyirabihanya zimubeshyera kuri Mibambwe ngo ni we wamuroze umusonga. Baramutanga arapfa. Aho yari atuye kuri Buguli hasigara hitwa ku Kabusanane. Nuko kuva ubwo, uwo bashatse gutsindira ubugome wese, nyamara ataburanganwa bakamwita umuhanya nk'aho agirana isano na Nyirabihanya. Biragumya birotota, bigeza ubwo bakomatanirije abantu bose muri uyu mugani, ucibwa bavuga ngo: "Rubanda ni abahanya!"

Umuhanya = umugiranabi.

 

Mu kwezi kwa Cyenda buri mwaka, tugaragaza amafoto y’ ibyiza nyaburanga n’imirage yo mu bihugu bitandatu bigize umuryango w’Afurika y’Uburasirazuba.

Ibyo bihugu ni Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania na Sudani y’epfo.

Ni mu rwego rwo kumenyekanisha ibyiza bihari no guteza imbere ubukerarugendo mu karere, gufasha abantu kumeya ibyiza nyaburanga byo gusura, ibintu ndangamateka na ndangamuco byo muri ibyo bihugu.

Wareba amafoto,kanda hano: https://www.flickr.com/photos/141807562@N05/albums/72157716218995442

 

  1. 1. Kalinda Viateur yari Umunyarwanda , umunyamakuru wakoraga kuri Radio Rwanda mu ishami ry’imikino.
  2. 2. Kalinda Viateur, ni izina rizwi cyane nk’umunyamakuru wogeje umupira kuri Radiyo Rwanda kuva mu 1978 kugeza mu 1994 .

.

  1. 3.Yavutse mu 1953, avukira mu cyahoze ari Komini Rutare, Segiteri Murehe, ubu akaba ari akarere ka Gicumbi, Umurenge wa Ruvune.

 

  1. 4.Amashuri abanza yayize ahantu hatandukanye: Kinyami, Rutare na Muhura.
    1. 5.Amashuri yisumbuye yayize kuri “Seminari Nto ya Mutagatifu Saviyo Dominiko” yo ku Rwesero, Amashuri makuru ayiga muri Seminari Nkuru ya Nyakibanda, aho yamaze imyaka ibiri yiga Filosofi (Philosophy).
    2. 6.Nyuma yaje kujya kwiga imyaka itatu muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda i Butare, aho yakurikiranye ishami ry’indimi kugeza mu mwaka wa 1977.
    3. 7.Mu 1988, yagiye kwiga muri “ Institut Supérieur Catholique Pédagogique appliqué” i Nkumba ahahoze hitwa Ruhengeri. Yahize icyiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza mu ndimi.
    4. 8.Arangije yoherejwe mu mahugurwa mu Bubiligi mu bijyanye na Televiziyo kuko ari bwo yari igiye gushingwa bwa mbere mu Rwanda.
    5. 9.yatoranyijwe mu bagomba kwitabira amahugurwa y’amezi 9 yabereye mu Bubiligi yari ajyanye n’ibya Televisiyo yari igiye gutangizwa bwa mbere mu Rwanda.

 

  1. 10.Avuye mu Bubiligi mu 1989, Kalinda yahise aba umunyamakuru w’imikino kuri Televiziyo y’u Rwanda ahava mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1993 agizwe umunyamakuru uhagarariye ORINFOR mu cyahoze ari Perefegitura ya Byumba.

 

  1. 11.Kalinda yakoze kuri Radiyo Rwanda mu ishami rya “Documentation” nyuma aza kuba umunyamakuru w’imikino.

 

  1. 12.Kalinda yashakanye na Uzanyinyana Domithile mu 1979 babyarana abana 4: NKUBITO Kalinda Thiery , Mitali Adolphe, Mukakalinda Aline na Igihozo M. Christella.
  2. 13.Kalinda Viateur yanditse igitabo akita “Rwaranyeganyeze” cyasobanuraga amategeko y’umupira w’amaguru.
    1. 14.Niwe wahimbye amwe mu magambo akoreshwa muri Ruhago mu Rwanda.
    2. 15.Ayo magambo ni aya: Rwanyeganyeze, Kurengura umupira, Urubuga rw’amahina, Ruhago, Umurongo w’abagatanu, Kwamurura Inyoni, Imboni, inguni, Urushundura, Imana y’ibitego, Kunobagiza, Rwari ruhiye ndetse n’ibindi.
    3. 16.Azwi cyane nk’ umunyamakuru wogezaga umupira w’amaguru bikanyura abawumva.
    4. 17.Yakanguriye ibigo binyuranye gukora amakipe y’imikino aho yashinze ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru yitwaga “Imboni” muri Minisiteri y’itangazamakuru (MININFOR)”.
    5. 18.Yagiye mu bihugu byinshi, ku migabane itandukanye aherekeje abakinnyi.
    6. 19.Kalinda Viateur yazize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu w’1994 Yicwa tariki 24 Mata.
    7. 20.Umurambo we wabonetse 1995 ari nabwo yashyinguwe. Bamumenyeye ku ikarita y’umunyamakuru yari agifite.

 

  1. 21.Kalinda ashyinguwe hamwe n’abihayimana mu irimbi rya Kiriziya Gaturika ry’i Kabgayi.

 

 

Imvano Yinkuru n’ifoto : internet

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