Quadripoint! Si henshi ku isi usanga ahantu afite imiterere iteye gutya, kuba hahurira ibihugu birenze bibiri icyarimwe. Kazungula  ni ahantu ho nyine ku isi ibihugu bihurira mu buryo kamere.Ni ahantu  hafite amateka menshi kubera ukuntu hashimishije kuhagera no kuhamenya.

Kazungula hazwi kuba hahurira ibihugu bine aribyo Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana na Namibia, ibyo bihugu byose bigahurira ku ruzi rwa Zambezi.

Umugezi wa Chobe ugabanya igihugu cya Namibia na Botwana maze ugahita wiroha mu ruzi rwa Zambezi.

Ahantu haba ubukerarugendo cyane,abantu baturutse impande z’isi baza kureba aho hantu hateye gutyo. Kugenda mu bwato mu ruzi rwa Zambezi, gusura ibintu ndangamuco n’imibereho yabatuye muri ibyo bihugu bifasha mu iterambere ryako gace.

Ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi, ubworozi n’uburobyi bifasha abaturage bahatuye mu mirimo yabo ya buri munsi. Ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bifasha abaturage bahatuye cyane.

Ingendo ziroroshye kugenderana hagati y’ibyo bihugu, hariho ibiraro na Ferry, ubwato bifasha abashaka kwambuka bava mu gihugu bajya mu kindi.

Ni hafi y’umurage w’isi wa Victoria Falls (Livingstone) uri hagati ya Zimbabwe na Zambia. Kazungula ni izina rizwi mu kugenderera ako gace kihariye ku isi kaboneka muri Afurika.

Ifoto:Internet

Mu mwaka wa 1900 nibwo abapadiri bera bageze mu Rwanda bazanye inkuru nziza ya Yezu kristu, abo bapadiri bashinzwe na Karidinali Lavigerie. Kugera mu Rwanda basanze harageze abandi bazungu (Abakoroni) mbere yabo,bituma biborohera kwinjira mu muryango nyarwanda.

Nyuma y’imyaka 17, mu mwaka wa 1917, ntibwo habonetse abapadiri ba kabukire b’abanyarwanda aribo Gafuku Balthazar na Reberaho Donat, bakaba baraherewe ubupadiri I Kabgayi tariki ya 7 Ukwakira 1917.

Uru rutonde rw’ababaye abapadiri ba mbere b’abanyarwanda, batarimo ababarizwa mu miryango y’abihayimana.

Mu mwaka wa 1917:

1.Balthazar GAFUKU
2.Donat REBERAHO

Mu mwaka wa 1919
3. Joseph BUGONDO

Mu mwaka wa 1920:
4. Isidore SEMIGABO
5. Jovith MATABARO

Mu mwaka wa 1917:

Mu mwaka wa 1924:
6. Gallican BUSHISHI

Mu mwaka wa 1925:
7. Albert NDAGIJIMANA

Mu mwaka wa 1927:
8. Callixte BALORUBWENGE
9. Fidèle NGAMIJE

Mu mwaka wa 1929:
10. Aloys BIGIRUMWAMI
11. Ananie KANYAMUGENGE

Mu mwaka wa 1930:
12. Claver MUNYANDEKWE
13. Eloi MINYAGO
14. Philippe NTABWOBA
15. Thomas BAZARUSANGA

Mu mwaka wa 1931:
16. Alpfonse NYAGAHENE
1933
17. Christophe NGENDAHAKUNZWE
18. Jean KAJYIBWAMI
19. Canisius SEBAHIZI

Mu mwaka wa 1934:
20. Noël LIRAKABIJE
21. Antoine SHYIRUBURYO
22. Bernard NZAJYIBWAMI
23. J. B. MUTWEWINGABO

Mu mwaka wa 1935:
24. Charles NTAMBUKO
25. Louis NTAMAZEZE
26. Joachim NDIKUMANA
27. Michel NTAMAKERO
28. Thaddée NGIRUMPATSE

Mu mwaka wa 1936:
29. Damien NYIRINKINDI
30. Michel SEYOBOKA
31. Michel BISENGIMANA

Mu mwaka wa 1937:
32. Aimable KAZUBWENGE
33. E. BIGUMIRABAGABO

Mu mwaka wa 1938:
34. Jean BIZIMANA
35. Simon RUGAYAMPUNZI

Mu mwaka wa 1939:
36. Alphonse RWAKAZINA
37. Bernard RWARAHOZE
38. Mathieu NTAHORUBURIYE
39. Augustin NKERABIGWI
40. Vianney RUSINGIZANDEKWE
41. Laurent SIKUBWABO
42. Michel RWABIGWI
43. Sother NTAHONTUYE
44. Thaddée BICURISHA

Mu mwaka wa 1940:
45. Alfred SEBAKIGA
46. Antoine RUGOMOKA
47. Bernard MANYURANE
48. Joseph SIBOMANA
49. Viateur KABARIRA

Mu mwaka wa 1941:
50. Alexis KAGAME
51. Eustache BYUSA
52. Herman MWAMBARI
53. Jean NTIRIVAMUNDA
54. Joseph NTABARESHYA
55. Marcel NZITABAKUZE
56. Paul SEKABUGA

Mu mwaka wa 1942:
57. Benoît GAKUBA
58. Gabriel NGOMIRARONKA
59. Pierre NTAKARAKORWA
60. Raphaël SEKAMONYO

Mu mwaka wa 1943:
61. Avit NDARIGENDANA
62. Denys MUTABAZI
63. Emmanuel MULERA
64. Gaspard NTIRIVAMUNDA
65. Laurent NKONGOLI
66. Melchior NABANA
67. Noël KILOMBA
68. Prosper SAYINZOGA

Mu mwaka wa 1944:
69. Alexis RUTERANDONGOZI
70. Evariste NZIRORERA
71. Grégoire KAMUGISHA
72. Laurent NZABAKURANA
73. Simon KAYUMBA
74. Stanislas BUSHAYIJA

Mu mwaka wa 1945:
75. Déogratias MBANDIWIMFURA
76. Claver NYIRINGONDO
77. Cyrille KANGABO
78. Léon NZAMWITA
79. Mathias GAHINDA

Mu mwaka wa 1947:
80. Canisius KABAGAMBA
81. Godefroi SUMBILI
82. Juvénal RWAGASANA
83. Vincent SEBAGABO
84. Wenceslas KALIBUSHI
85. Chysologue KAYIHURA
86. Innocent GASABWOYA
87. J.B. KABENGERA
88. Léonard RUBUMBIRA
89. Louis GASORE
90. Phocas NIKWIGIZE

Mu mwaka wa 1949:
91. Janvier MULENZI
92. Apollinaire RWAGEMA
93. Boniface MUSONI
94. Chrysostome KANUSU

Mu mwaka wa 1950:
95. Gérard MWEREKANDE
96. Christophe MUNYAMPANZI
97. Ferdinand MARARA
98. Narcisse SEBASARE
99. Théodose NKIZAMACUMU

Mu mwaka wa 1951:
100. Claver RWAHUNDE

 Amatorero ya Kinyarwanda abyina imbyino gakondo ari mu nzego zagize ibibazo by’imikorere muri iki gihe.  Icyorezo cya Koronavirus (COVID-19) cyagize ingaruka  mu bikorwa byose by’ubuzima bwa bantu. Amatorero ya Kinyarwanda nayo ari mubagizweho ingaruka mu mibereho yayo ya buri munsi,haba mu mikorere, ubuzima bw’abayagize, gususurutsa abantu n’ibindi.

Amatorero afasha mu rwego rwogusigasira no guteza imbere imbyino n’umuco nyarwanda muri rusange, guhanga imirimo mu rubyiruko rubikora, gususurutsa abantu, gusakaza ubumenyi, guhanga,  n’ibindi ni uruganda rufatiye runini igihugu mu iterambere rirambye.

Nyuma y’iki cyorezo, amatorero akwiriye gutekereza uburyo akwiriye kubaho , uburyo buramye, uburyo butandukanye n’ubwari busanzwe, gufata ingamba mu iterambere rirambye.

Dore uburyo amatorero akwiriye kogera kubaho mu buryo burambye

1.  Ubufatanye  hagati y’amatorero

Ni byiza kugira umuco wo gufatanya mu bikorwa, guhana inama ndetse no gutegura ibintu bitandukanye. Kwirinda kuba nyamwigendaho, bizafasha gusangira ubumenyi ndetse n’amakuru. Haba n’ibikorwa mugiye gukora byumvikana vuba, bigashyigikirwa cyane.

Urugero:  Gutegura igitaramo muri amatorero abiri cyangwa atatu bifasha kubona abantu bakitabira kandi abakunzi banyu bakabona ko mufite umugambi wo guteza imbere ibyo mukora.

Ntimba abahanzi basanzwe bahurira mu bitaramo. Kuki amatorero atagira umuco wo gukora ibitaramo hamwe? Gukorera hamwei bizafasha no kubaka urwego rw’amatorero haveho ibintu byo kujarajara, guhinduranya  amatorero.

2. Gukoresha ikoranabuhanga

Amatorero ya Kinyarwanda akwiriye kugira umuco wo gukoresha ikoranabuhanga haba ari ukugira imbuga nkoranyambaga zafasha kumenyekanisha ibikorwa byayo. Bituma akomeza kumenyakana mu Rwanda no hanze y’igihugu kandi bifasha mu kwitabira amarushanwa mpuzamahanga.

3.  Guhanga udushya

Amatorero akwiriye gutekereza ibintu bidasanzwe haba mu mikorere, mu mishakire amafaranga, mugukora imishinga ibyara inyungu, ifasha abantu na sosiyete muri rusange. Guhanga udushya mu bikorwa byabo haba imbyino, imikino, ibitaramo bifite intego runaka, bitewe n’igihe cyangwa umunsi, ukwezi cyangwa n’ibindi bikorwa bizwi mu Rwanda no mu karere.

Urugero: Gutegura gitaramo cyo kwizihiza umunsi u Rwanda rwinjiriye mu muryango wa Afurika y’uburasirazuba. Hakagaragara imico yo mu bihugu biri muri aka karere turimo n’ibindi.

4.  Gutegura ibirori

Guhindura uburyo bwo gutegura ibitaramo, bwo gushakamo amafaranga. Singombwa gutegura igitaramo gihenze cyangwa gutegereza ubukwe gusa. Shaka uburyo habaho igitaramo mu gihembwe ,  kabiri cyangwa gatatu mu mwaka, mu miyi itandukanye y’u Rwanda cyangwa hanze yarwo ndetse no kuri interineti byaragaragaye ko bishoboka.

Urugero: Gutekereza gukorera ibitaramo mu bigo by’Urubyiruko, mu nzu ndangamuco, amashuri Makuru n’ahandi wasabA ubufatanye nabo ndetse n’abandi baba bahakorera mugategura igitaramo kimwe gifite insanganyamatsiko.

 Ni byiza kwibuka gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu gutegura igitaramo no kwishyurahakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga.

5.  Gufatanya na Leta n’Abikorera

Gutegura imishinga y’ubufatanye na Leta, ibigo bya Leta, abikorera mu nzego zitadukanye mu rwego rwo gufashanya hagati yanyu no kubamamariza ibintu cyangwa ibikorwa byabo. Amatorero akwiriye guhindura isura, kugaragaza umumaro wayo mu muryango nyarwanda, kwerekana ko hari icyo amaze.

Abikorera bakwiriye kwakirana na Yombi abanyamatorero bafite ibitekerezo byo gukorana; haba ari abafite Amahoteli, Bar & Restaurant, ubusitani, ahantu nyaburanga hakorerwa ubukerarugendo,  inganda, ibigo by’itangazamakuru, insengero n’abandi.

Urugero: Kumvikana na karere mu bikorwa byo gutaramira mu karere mu gasusurutsa abaturage, kuzamura imyidagaduro n’ibikorwa by’ubukerarugendo,  mukabakangurira gahunda za Leta n’ibindi.

Ibikorwa byagahato byatewe n'impamvu y'ingenzi ikurikira.

 Abakoloni bari bagamije mbere ya byose inyungu zabo zo kuvoma ibintu binyuranye bakoresheje Abanyarwanda. Bamwe bakagomba kubafasha mu butegetsi, bakageza ku baturage amabwiriza y'Abazungu kandi bakareba niba yubahirizwa. Abatabikoze bagahanwa; ndetse n'abatware habagaho ubwo bakubitwa n'Abazungu. Abandi (ni ukuvuga abategekwagwa) ibyo bikorwa by'agahato byarabavunnye bikabije. Ababiligi bari bafite ibitekerezo bibi baheraho muri uko gukandamiza Abanyarwanda:

 • Basuzuguraga umwirabura ku mpamvu nyinshi zirimo izingizi ebyiri: ngo umwirabura ni igicucu nta bwenge agira n'ikimenyimenyi n'uko adashobora kwibwiriza icyamugirira akamaro ngo agikore; ngo ni umunebwe kabuhariwe ku buryo agomba guhatirwa gukora byaba ngombwa akabikubitirwa.

 • Ababiligi ntibashakaga gutanga amafaranga yabo ngo bateze igihugu imbere. Ibyo byaterwaga n'uko bari bazi ko igihugu cy'u Rwanda ari indagizo ya SDN na ONU, amaherezo bazareka kurutegeka. Ikindi mu buryo bwo gucunga ubukungu n'imari, bazi ko ari ngombwa gushobora bike ugamije inyungu nyinshi. Kubera iyo mpamvu bakoresheje Abanyarwanda nta mafaranga menshi ya Leta mbiligi bakoresheje. Amafaranga hafi yose yakoreshejwe yavaga mu maboko y'abaturage, cyangwa ba nyiri ayo maboko bagakora badahembwa, abatware bagahembwa amafaranga avuye mu misoro.

 • Ibyo bikorwa byagahato, umuturage wese yumvaga imvune yabyo, akumva ububi bw'ako gahato, kabone n'ubwo kabaga kagamije kumufasha kubona ibimutunga nko guhinga imyumbati, ibijumba, n'ibindi.

1.         AKAZI (corvee/forced labour)

Tubanze dusuzume icyo aricyo. Akazi byari Ibikorwa byagahato bidahemberwa, byazanywe n'ubutegetsi bwite bw'Abazungu.

Ingero z'ibyakorwaga: - gukora imihanda; - gutera amashyamba (abasore 300 bagombaga gutera nibura hectare imwe y'inturusu mu bya 1930); - kubaka amazu y'ubutegetsi no gutwara ibikoresho (ibiti, amatafari); - gucukura imiringoti, nb. 24.

Abakoraga akazi ni bande? Ni abagabo basoraga. Mu bya 1930, ababazwaga imirimo ya Leta n'umusoro babitaga "Homme Adulte Valide (H.A.V)": ni ukuvuga abasore n'abagabo bafite ingufu. Hamwe na hamwe Abatwa nta kazi babasabaga gukora, kimwe n'uko batabarurwaga. Hari ikindi cyiciro amategeko y'akazi yasoneraga: ni abo bitaga "les Notables" bikavuga Abanyacyubahiro bashyikiranaga n'abatware n'umwami, abakoreraga Abazungu ari aba Leta ari n'abanyamadini, abarimu, abakuru b'inama, akenshi n'ababaga batuye mu cyo bitaga "centres extra-coutumiers", ni ukuvuga abasirimu barimo n'abanyamahanga b'abirabura.

Abakoreshaga akazi: Ku bw'Abazungu abakoreshaga ku mugaragaro akazi ni umwami, abashefu n'abasushefu. Ariko mu by'ukuri, mu migirire ya buri munsi, akazi kakoreshwaga cyane cyane n'ibirongozi n' abamotsi.

ibibi by'akazi, Akazi kakoreshejwe ku gitugu, nkeke yo guhamagarwa buri gihe kukajyaho no kutagira umunsi n'umwe umuturage yabaga azi ko yakora gahunda ashaka.

Ububi bw'akazi kiyongera ku musoro n'ibindi bikorwa by'agahato nka shiku byatumye Abanyarwanda benshi bahunga ingoma mbiligi bajya cyane cyane Uganda bajya gupagasa; Ni ukuvuga gushaka umusoro, akenda, n’utundi tuntu.

2.           UBURETWA

 Uburetwa ni imirimo abategekwa bakoreraga abategetsi biturutse kuri iryo sano ryonyine ry'ubutegetsi cyangwa abakene bakoreraga abakire, kandi iyo mirimo ntigire ibihembo.

 Imirimo y'uburetwa yari iyihe? Hari abakunze kwitiranya mu nyandiko zabo uburetwa n'ikoro (ryaba iry'umuheto cyangwa iry'ubutaka). Hari n'abagiye bitiranya uburetwa n'ubuhake cyangwa akazi k'igihe cy'Abazungu. Mu byukuri imirimo y'ingenzi yakorerwaga umutegetsi mbere y'Abazungu ni iyi: guhinga, kuba (urugero hari abavaga i Bugoyi bakajya kubaka ibwami), kurarira, gucana ibishyito, gusenya (gushaka inkwi), kuvoma, gukuka no guheka.

 Uburetwa bwadutse ryari? Mu byukuri ntibyoroshye kumenya ku buryo budashidikanywa igihe uburetwa bwadukiye mu Rwanda. Hari abagiye bemeza ko uburetwa ari ubwo ku ngoma ya Rwabugili (Kimanuka Tharcisse, Uburetwa et akazi au Marangara de 1916 à 1959, Memoire de licence, Ruhengeri, 1983).

 Hari n'abandi bemeza ko uburetwa bwazanywe n'Abazungu; bati n'ikimenyimenyi ni iryo jambo uburetwa rikomoka ku giswahile "kuleta", cyangwa ku gifaransa "l'Etat" cyabyaye "uburetwa" ari byo kuvuga "ni ibya Leta".

 Birashoboka kandi ko iryo jambo riva ku kinyarwanda cya kera, nk'uko Inkoranyamagambo (DIMO: dictionnaire monolingue) ya I.R.S.T. (Butare) ibyerekana: handitsemo ko "uburetwa" ari ijambo rishaje ryavugaga "imibyizi umuretwa (cg. Ikiretwa) yakoraga ku mutware w'ubutaka". Iyo nkoranyamagambo itanga n'umugani ngo "umusozi w'uburetwa ukama kare.

3.           SHIKU

Icyo iryo jambo rivuga Shiku ni ahantu bahingaga ku gahato imirimo (ibipimo) yagenwe n'ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni kandi igahingwamo imyaka yemejwe n'ubwo butegetsi ngo izarwanye inzara.

Shiku bivuga n'umurimo ubwawo wo guhinga ku gahato bene iyo mirimo Imyaka yahingwaga ni ibijumba n'imyumbati. Ijambo shiku rikomoka ku nshinga "gushikura", mu byerekeye ubuhinzi bikavuga guhingisha isuka ukurura n'ingufu ahantu h'umushike (Adiaenssens J., Le droit foncier au Rwanda, Butare, 1962, P.61).

Ariko shiku yashoboraga no guhingwa ku gasi (ku mpama), ngombwa bikaba kwegera umuhanda cyangwa aho witegeye. Kwegera umuhanda kwari ukugirango umutegetsi w'umuzungu cyangwa shefu bashime umwete wa sushefu w'aho hantu, banamuhe amanota.

Shiku yari ifite irindi zina: habagaho ubwo bayitaga "akajagari" bigashaka kuvuga urusange rw'imirima yahingwagamo n'abantu benshi, ariko buri muntu akagira igipande/icyate cye. Icyo gipande cyari icye mu gihe uwahahingaga atari yasarura, kuko iyo yamaraga gusarura habaga aha susheferi.

Igihe shiku yatangiriye, Amashiku yatangiye gukoreshwa mu mwaka wa 1926, ageragezwa imyaka ine yose.

Akamaro ka shiku n'ububi bwayo, Abakoloni bari barategetse shiku kubera inyungu bwite z'abaturage: twibuke ko mu mwaka 1924-1925, inzara bise gakwege yaciye ibintu. Abazungu bibwiraga ko shiku izakemura ikibazo cy'inzara ku buryo budasubirwaho.

Ibyo ari byo byose shiku yabaye ikintu cyanzwe cyane n'abaturage. Yatwaraga ingufu nyinshi ku musaruro muke, ndetse rimwe na rimwe wa ntawo.

4.          UMUGOGORO

 Umugogoro ni inka yatangwaga n'umuturage cyangwa umuryango, ikajya gukamirwa umuzungu (ndetse n'abamuherekeje) aho yabaga acumbitse ku nkambi. Umugogoro byavugwa nki gikorwa cyo kujyana inka. Bavugaga: kujya ku mugogoro.

 Inka y'umugogoro yagiraga n'ibindi biyiherekeza bitangwa n'abaturage: inkoko, amagi, ibitoke... Uwategekaga ko batanga umugogoro n'ibiwuherekeza akenshi abinyujije kirongozi nacyo kikabibwira umumotsi ni sushefu.

5.         IKAWA

Aba mbere badukanye ikawa mu Rwanda ni Abapadiri bera. Abo ba misiyoneri bari bakeneye ikawa yo kunywa. Guhera mu mwaka wa 1903 nibwo batangiye kuyihinga muri  misiyoni ya Mibirizi, nyuma ikwira buhoro buhoro mu gihugu.

Ariko ikawa yatangiye kwamamara mu bya 1925, aho ubutegetsi bw'Ababiligi butegetse abaturage kuyihinga. Guhera mu myaka 1933/1934, ni bwo Abanyarwanda batangiye guhinga ikawa ku itegeko n'ubwo hari ababikoraga ku bushake buke kubera inyungu babibonagamo.

Ibindi bikorwa by ‘agahato twavuga nk ‘umusoro w’Abazungu ( Ababiligi) wadutse 1917 kugeza 1927, Umusoro wabazwaga buri musore cyangwa buri mugabo muzima (H.A.V) agatanga amafaranga atatu n'urumiya (3,50 francs). . Ububi bw'umusoro wa gikoloni (1916-1962) Umusoro wagiye wiyongera udakurikijwe ubukungu bw'abawubazwa. Iyo Abanyarwanda batubahirizaga ibyo bikorwa bya gahato twavuze haruguru bahanishwaga ikiboko ibicye byari ibiboko umunani, ihazabu (amande/fine) yagendaga mu mafaranga akenshi. Gufungwa: Gufungwa iminsi, amezi cyangwa imyaka byazanywe n'Abazungu. Kunyagwa: ni ukwamburwa ubutegetsi kw’Abashefu n'Abasushefu ndetse no gucibwa.

Imvano y’inkuru : Igitabo” UBUMWE BW'ABANYARWANDA ~ MBERE Y'ABAZUNGU N'IGIHE CY'UBUKOLONI ~ MU GIHE CYA REPUBULIKA YA MBERE” Cyasohotse 1999.

 

 

Yitwa TWAGIRAYEZU Yves, Ni Umunyarwanda w’ umunyamateka. Muri iki gihe akorera mu Kigo cy’ Igihugu Gishinzwe Ishyinguranyandiko na Serivisi z’Inkoranyabitabo (RALSA) kibarizwa muri Ministeri y’ Urubyiruko n’ Umuco, mu gashami kacyo k’Ishyinguranyandiko y’ Igihugu (National Archives).

Atuye mu Ntara y’ Amajyepfo mu Karere ka Muhanga. Mu buzima busanzwe akunda kubaho ubuzima butuje, butamubangamiye kandi butabangamiye abandi, baba abo babana, abo bakorana ndetse n’abandi bahurira mu bikorwa bya buri munsi, kandi agakunda ubufatanye n’abandi.

Akunda kandi gukurikira amakuru areba u Rwanda muri rusange.

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

1.Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda ?

Mu kigero cy’imyaka ngezemo, navuga ko maze gutembera henshi mu Rwanda mu bihe bitandukanye, ariko aho navuga mperuka mu bihe bya vuba ni i Rubavu ku Kivu n’amashyuza y’aho no ku kiyaga cya Muhazi.

2.Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Biragoye k’umunyamateka nkanjye kuvuga ko nkunda umuntu uyu n’uyu cyangwa iki n’iki mu mateka y’u Rwanda kuko kuri jye, umuntu wese uvugwa mu mateka (historical person) cyangwa ufite ibikorwa byasigaye mu mateka aba afite agaciro gakomeye kuri jye. Ariko mu gusubiza ikibazo uko kibajijwe, reka mvuge ko umuntu nkunda mu mateka y’u Rwanda ni MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA (Umwami) na Padiri Alexis KAGAME. Impamvu nkunda Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ni ukubera ibikorwa n’ibyemezo bye mu gihe yari aganje ku ngoma. Hanyuma kandi Padiri Alexis KAGAME mukundira ko yashyize amateka mu nyandiko, ibitabo bye ni isooko y’amakuru menshi ku mateka y’u Rwanda. Ikintu nzirikana mu mateka, ni ibihe byo kubohora igihugu ubwo Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi 1994 mu Rwanda.

3.Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda?

Mu karere ka Nyagatare ahitwa i Mimuli hari Urugo rw’ umuhigo rw’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa narahasuye haranshimisha.

4. Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda kurya igitoki gitekanye n’ibishyimbo kirimo imboga cyane cyane dodo, imyumbati igeretse ku bishyimbo nayo ni ifunguro nkunda.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Muri iki gihe sinkinywa inzoga, ariko mbere urwagwa rwiza rwa bitoki nasomagaho.

6. Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Icya mbere ni ibindanga (ibyangombwa), birumvikana n’amafaranga yo kwirengera aho ngiye kuko usanga gutwara impamba bigoye, ubundi kandi nkagira agakapu gato nshyiramo nk’icyo kwifubika, ingofero, ecouteurs n’utundi dukoresho umuntu akenera iyo atari mu rugo iwe.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Buriya nkunda itorero Urugangazi ryabaga muri Musée i Huye ariko simperutse kubona aho riseruka.

8. Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

I Karongi ahagana ku Kiyaga cya Kivu ni heza ndahakunda kubera imiterere yaho usanga hari amazi y’ikiyaga, ibirwa bito byo mu mazi n’uburyo ikiyaga kigenda kinjiranamo n’imisozi.

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda,ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda?Kubera iki?

Iyo ngana mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, nkoresha cyane Volcano Express cyangwa Horizon Express kubera ko ni ibigo byombi bitanga serivisi nziza mu gutwara abagenzi.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi, umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Umuhanzi Rugamba Spiriyani (n’Amasimbi n’Amakombe) mu ndirimbo ze zose.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

Gutura ni mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo by’umwihariko mu karere ka Muhanga kuko hagendeka, ni hafi ya Kigali kandi no mu byo umuntu akenera hafi ya byose biboneka muri Muhanga mu buryo bworoshye.

12. Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Ni FESPAD, Iserukiramuco ry’ imbyino nyafurika rihuza imico itandukanye bigashimisha.

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

Numva natembera muri Kenya kubera ko nibwira ko bakomeye ku mutungo kamere no ku muco wabo.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka cyangwa nyaburanga mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Ni muri Pariki ya Nyungwe.

15. Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyu mwaka wa 2020?

Uyu mwaka ntaho nteganya gutemberera kubera ibibazo by’ihungabana ry’ubukungu muri rusange ariko no kuri jye by’umwihariko.

Murakoze.

Murakoze.

Ubuvumo bwa Musanze buherereye mu nkengero z’umujyi wa Musanze uzwi nka Ruhengeri. Ni ubuvumo bukurura abantu benshi baza kubusura, kureba ukuntu bumeze.  Bwegereye ibirunga, ikirunga kiri hafi cyane uba witegeye ni Sabyinyo.

Dore ibintu 5 ukwiriye kumenya:

1. Ni ahantu kamere

Ubuvumo  bwa Musanze bufite imiterere kamere imaze imyaka myinshi, imiterere itarigezwe iremwa n’abantu ni ahantu habayeho kubera iruka ry’ibirunga mu myaka miliyoni 65 ishize bivuye mu kitwa Albertine Rift Valley, akarere u Rwanda ruherereyemo.

2. Uburebure bwa KM 2

Ubuvumo buri munsi y’ubutaka, ahantu harehare hareshya na Kilometero ebyiri, hijimye, harimo ibimera byinshi bihakikije, habonekamo n’inyoni. Hafite ikirere cyiza cyane, hahora hakonje kandi hatuje cyane.

3. Urugendo rw’isaha imwe

Gutembera muri ubwo buvumo bitwara igihe kigera ku isaha, uturutse aho winjiriye naho usohokera. Ni ahantu hateguwe ku buryo byorohereza abashaka kuhagenda.

4. Ubuvumo bwambukiranya umuhanda 

Iyo ugenda munsi y’ubwo buvumo ntabwo ushobora gutekereza ko uri guca munsi y’umuhanda wa kaburimbo Musanze-Rubavu. Kandi n’iyo ugenda mu muhanda siwamenyako hari ubuvumo burimo hasi.

5. Ibikoresho byo kwitwaza

Ni byiza kumenya ahantu ugiye uko ukwiriye kugenda umeze. Gutembera mu buvumo bwa Musanze ni byiza kwitwaza  ibntu bituma urugendo rwawe ruba rufite umutekano. Mu byo wakwitwaza harimo; ingofero zirinda impanuka, amadarubindi ,ikoti ry’imbeho,  urumuri mu ntoki,  inkweto z’urugendo.

 

Ubu ni igihe cyo gusubukura ingendo hirya no hino mu gihugu no hanze y’u Rwanda. Ni byiza gutekereza uko umuntu akwiriye gukora ingendo kandi akirinda  COVID-19.

Dore inama wagerageza kugenderaho zagufasha gukora urugenndo neza kandi ukirinda no kurinda abandi.

1. Kwitwaza agapfukamunwa

Kwitwaza agapfukamunwa, ukagira umuco wo ku kambara neza ,ugafunga  umunwa neza ndetse n’amazuru. Byaba byiza ufite udupfukamunwa nka tubiri ukajya uduhinduranya kugirango komeze kwirinda.

2. Gukaraba intoki

Kwibuka gukaraba intoki kenshi gashoboka, ukoresheje amazi yabigenewe cyangwa indi miti yemewe.Ni byiza gukurikiza amabwiriza yahoo ukorera ingendo cyangwa ugiye kujya kuko baba bateganyije uko abantu binjira.

3. Gushyiramo intera/umwanya

Igihe ugiye gukora urugendo ni byiza kwibuka gushyira intera hagati yawe n’undi muntu. Bitewe nuko mwinjira, mwicara, n’ibindi byose bashyizeho mu rwego rwo kwirinda kwegerana.

4. Kubika umwanya

Ni byiza gufata umuco wo gukoresha ikoranabuhanga muri iki gihe; kubika umwanya.  Gushyira Apps muri telefoni cyangwa muri mashini kugirango ukoreshe ikoranabunga mu kubona serivisi.

5.Gutegura urugendo rwawe

Gupanga urugendo rwawe, ukamenya aho urajya, uko ujyayo, ibyo uri bukore, ibintu byose bigufasha kumenya uko ugenda wirinda kujya mubitateguwe byatuma wandura.

6. Kwishyura ukoresheje koranabuhanga

Gukoresha ikoranabunga mu kwishyura , mu rwego rwo kwirinda guhererekanya amafaranga, ni byiza kugira umuco wo kugabanya gukora ku mafaranga. Haba ari ukugura itike cyangwa wkwishyura muri ibyo kurya ,kunywa n’amacumbi.

7. Kugenda n’amaguru cyangwa gukoresha igare

Ni igihe cyiza cyo guhindura uburyo twari dusanzwe tugendamo. Gutangira kugira ibitekerezo byo kugenda n’amaguru cyangwa n’igare. Ni uburyo bwo gushyigikira ubukerarugendo burambye no kubungabunga ibidukikije. Kugenda n’amaguru cyangwa igare bifasha umubiri kandi ni uburyo bworoshye bwo kugabanya kwegeranya.

8. Kuba hanze

Iki ni igihe cyo gufata umwanya uhangije wo kuba hanze kurusha uwo kuba mu nzu. Bizafasha kuruhuka mu mutwe no guhindura ibitekerezo.

9. Kugenda neza

Ni byiza gutekereza ku bintu biri ngombwa mu rugendo ugiye gukora, ukirinda kujya ahantu utapanze neza cyangwa hashobora kugushyira mu kaga. Ni byiza gukora ingendo zikenewe, ziri ngombwa.

10. Kwihangana/Kwitonda no kubaha.

Ni byiza kugira umuco wo gukurikiza amabwiriza y’inzego zibanze, abayobozi bashyizeho mu rwego rwo kwirinda iki cyoreza. Kugira imbaraga zo kwihangana, gukurikiza amategeko baguha, kwitonda igihe uri mu bantu cyangwa utegereje serivisi, kubaha abari kugufasha.

 

Mucyowingabo Félicien ni Umusore w’umunyarwanda, ukunda gutembera, wubaha Imana, warangije amashuri ya Kaminuza.  Atuye I Remera mu karere ka Gasabo .

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

1. Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda ?

Natembereye muri Akagera  National Park, ku kibuye(Karongi) ,ku kivu , Nyungwe forest na  canopy walk, Gisenyi (Rubavu) , Kuri Muhazi n’Ibyumba .

2. Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Mu bantu nzirikana; Umwami Rudahigwa, Fred Rwigema na  Paul Kagame.

Mu mateka y’u Rwanda , Ikintu nibuka ni genoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, ni  ikintu cyabaye kibi kidasanzwe.

3. Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda ?

Aho mperuka gutembere ni Kingfisher Muhazi.

4. Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Mu mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda, Nkunda Imyumbati n’ibishyimbo.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Mu binyobwa bya Kinyarwanda, Nkunda amata N’ikigage.

6. Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Nkunda kwitwaza Amazi cyangwa Jus.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda Itorero Inyamibwa.

8. Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

Natembereye henshi kandi ndahakunda, gusa muri Pariki y’Akagera niho nakunze cyane, kubona inyamaswa z’inkazi ndetse n’ahantu h’umurambi.

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda,ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda?Kubera iki?

Nakunze Kwetu Bola Tour,itanga serivisi nziza,kandi igira gahunda rwose.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi, umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Mu bahanzi Nkunda Kayirebwa Cecile, igihangano cye biragora kugihitamo, indirimbo ze zose ndazikunda. Nkunda na Pamela na Ange.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

Nahitamo gutura muri Kigali kubera ariho ubuzima bushoboka, ho nta masambu yo guhinga ugura.

12. Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Nkunda ibirori ndangamuco by’Umuganura,bigaragaza umuco wa kinyarwanda.

13.  Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

 Nifuza gutembera muri   Egypt na Kenya, ni ibihugu bifite amateka n’ibintu nkunda nifuza kureba no kumenya.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka cyangwa nyaburanga mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Nifuza kugera mu birunga.

15. Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyu mwaka wa 2020?

Ndateganya gusubira ku Kibuye(Karongi)

 

Murakoze

Murakoze cyane

 

 

Jomo Kenyatta ni Umugabo w’umunyakenya wavukiye muri Kenya, yarwanyije ubutegetsi bwaba koloni ba bongereza bari barigaruriye ubutaka bwa Kenya, yaharaniye ubwigenge bw’abanyakenya ndetse abugeraho mu mwaka wa  1963.  Nyuma y’umwaka wa 1964  yabaye perezida wa mbere wa Kenya.

1. Jomo Kenyatta ni Umukikuyu, akivuka yahawe izina rya Kamau, yavukiye mu gace kicyaro kitwaga Nginda, babaga hafi y’umugezi wa Thiririka.

2. Igihe yavukiye amatariki ntago azwi neza, bamwe bavuga ko yavutse 1894 (britanica) naho abandi bakavuga ko yavutse 1897(wikpedia).

3. Jomo Kenyatta Ise yitwaga Muigai nyina yitwaga Wambui.

4. Nyina Wambui yabyaye undi mwana ukurikira Kenyatta witwaga “Kongo” mbere ho gato ko Ise Muigai apfa.

5. Kugirango basigasire umuco waba Kikuyu,Wambui yahise ashyingiranywa  n’umuvandimwe w’umugabo we wapfuye Witwaga “Ngengi” n’uko Kenyatta ahita yitwa “ Kamau wa Ngengi”

6. Ugushyingo 1909 yabaye umunyeshuri Muri CSM(Church of Scotland Mission) ahitwa Thogoto.

7. Kenyatta yagumye mu ishuri rito ry’abongereza aho yigaga inkuru zo muri bibiriya , yiga gusoma no kwandika mu rurimi rw’icyongereza, Imibare ndetse n’ububaji.

8. Mu mwaka wa 1912 yize ibijyanye n’ububaji aba umunyeshuri mwiza.

9. Muri Nyakanga, 1914 yarabatijwe , yitwa Johnstone Kamau ;ninyuma yuko abamisiyoneri bamuhatiye gutoranya Izina rimwe ry’irikirisitu hagati ya Peter na John. Nyuma yuko abatijwe yahise ava muri iryo shuri ry’abamisiyoneri ajya kubana n’inshuti ze.

10. Jomo Kenyatta yakoze akazi gatandukanye harimo ako mu biro akorera ubutegetsi bwariho icyo gihe  muri Kenya, ninaho yaje kwiyita Kenyatta; Kenyatta mu mvugo ya Kikuyu risobanura “Umukandara w’amasaro ya Massai” .

11. Kenyatta yashakanye n’abagore 4 harimo Ngina Kenyata Nyina wa Uhuru Kenyatta.

12. Jomo Kenyatta yabyaye abana 8 ku bagore 4 harimo Uhuru Kenyatta perezida wa Kenya ubungubu.   

13. Muri Gicurasi 1928 , Ihuriro ry’abakikuyu ryitwaga (KCA) Kikuyu Central Association ryashyize hanze ikinyamakuru cyari kiri mu rurimi rw’igikuyu cyitwaga Mwigithania ujyenekereje mu kinyarwanda ni “Abiyunze” intego yacyo yari gufasha abakikuyu kwishyira hamwe ndetse no gushakira inkunga KCA, Kenyata yahise ashyirwa ku rutonde rw’abayobozi bicyo kinyamakuru.(Publication ‘s editor).

14. Muri Gashyantare 1929 Kenyatta yavuye Mombasa yerekeza mu Bwongereza, ni nyuma yuko KCA ibonye inkunga ihangije. Aho niho yahuriye na Mohandas Gandhi waharaniye ubwingenge bwa bahinde.

15. Hagati 1935 ndetse 1937 yakoze muri kaminuza yo mu bwogereza yitwaga University College of London (UCL). Yahise aniyandikisha muri iyo kaminuza yiga ururimi rw’icyongereza. Nyuma yaje gukomeza kwiga amasomo ajyanye n’ubumenyamuntu(Anthoropology) mu ishuri bitaga London School of Economics(LSE).

16. Mu mwaka wa 1946 Kenyatta yagarutse muri kenya ni nyuma yuko Abongereza batsinze intambara ya 2 y’isi yose.

17. Mu mwaka wa 1947 yatorewe kuyobora ishyaka rya Kenya African Union (KAU).

18. Tariki ya 21 ukwakira 1952 Kenyatta yarafuzwe, bamuregaga kuyobora imyigaragambyo yaba Mau Mau bari bakoze bamagana abakoloni babongereza kuko bikubiye ubutaka bwabo.

19. Muri Mata 1953 Kenyatta bamukatiye igifungo cy’imyaka 7 muri gereza bamushinja kuyobora iyo myigaragambyo.

20. Muri Kanama 1961 Kenyatta yaje kurekurwa ava muri gereza, akimara kurekurwa yahise yumvikana n’abakoloni babongereza uko bahindura itegekoshinga ,ndetse ibyo biganiro nibyo byaje kugeza Kenya ku bwingenge.

21. Muri Gicurasi 1963 ishyaka ryitwaga Kenya African Natinal Union (KANU) ryaje gutsinda amatora( kandi icyo gihe Jomo Kenyatta niwe wari perezida waryo  ) bahita bashyiraho guverinoma yagateganyo muri Kenya.

22. Tariki 12 Ukuboza 1963 Kenya yabonye ubwingenge ibukuye kuba koroni ba bongereza. Kenyatta yahise aba Minisitiri w’intebe.

23. Jomo Kenyatta yabaye perezida wa mbere wa Kenya guhera 1964 kugeza 1978.

24. Jomo Kenyatta (Jomo bivuga icumu ribengerana naho Kenyatta bivuga umukandara w’amasaro ya Massai).

25. Jomo Kenyatta yitwaga kandi Mwalimu, Umusaza , Ise w’igihugu(Father of the Nation) kandi bakanamwita Umwubatsi w’ahera hasenyutse.

26. Tariki ya 22 Kanama 1978 Jomo Kenyatta yaratabarutse azize indwara y’umutima, apfira I Mombasa. 

IMVANO YIFOTO N’INKURU : Internet

Writter:   UDAHEMUKA  Jean de Dieu

 

Uyu mugani uvugwa kenshi mu Rwanda bawerekeje ku muntu, bakuye mu mage bakamudabagiza; niho bavuga ngo: «Bamushyize igorora!»

Wakomotse ku munyagisaka witwaga Rumanzi; ahagana mu mwaka w'i 1700, wusirwa n'umunyanduma witwaga Shabwega bwa Rubunge w'umwenegitoli, ahagana mu mwaka w'i 1800. Ni bo bombi bashyizwe igorora: Rumanzi yashyizwe igorora rya Bishenyi mu Buganza, Shabwega ashyirwa igorora rya Buhoro bwa Reramacu mu Nduga.

Bamushyize igorora biri kabiri rero:

Ubwa mbere, Cyilima Rujugira yarongoye umukobwa w'umunyagisaka witwa Rwesero rwa Muhoza se wabo wa Kimenyi, babyarana Ndabarasa, wabaye umwami w'u Rwanda yitwa Kigeli.

Bukeye Ndabarasa amaze guca akenge, bamwohereza i Gisaka kwa nyirarume Kimenyi ku buryo bw'imitsindo. Ubwo Kimenyi yari afite umunyanzoga we akitwa Rumanzi. Uwo Rumanzi ngo agakunda Ndabarasa cyane akamumenyera inzoga y'agasusuruko n'iya nimugoroba; bituma na Ndabarasa amukunda.

Ndabarasa amaze kuba umusore abwira Kimenyi ko amusaba aho azubaka. Bukeye Kimenyi ajya kumuha imisozi yo kwubakaho, amuha Rundu na Gasetsa. Ndabarasa abwira nyirarume, ati: «Wampaye na hariya haruguru ya Gasetsa!» Abivuga atungayo umuheto. Kimenyi abibonye, abona ko ari imitsindo; abwira Ndabarasa, ati: «Abanyarwanda mugira ubwira; urangaruriza igihugu uruhembe rw' umuheto?»

Kuva ubwo Kimenyi yanga mwishywa we Ndabarasa, aramusezerera agaruka mu Rwanda. Haciyeho iminsi Ndabarasa yima ingoma y'u Rwanda.Amaze kwima Kimenyi yanga na wa munyanzoga we Rumanzi aramunyaga. Rumanzi amaze kuba umukene bikabije cyane, yigira inama yo gucika ngo aze mu Rwanda; ati: «Uwasanga Ndabarasa ubwo twabanye wenda yazankiza.

Inama amaze kuyinoza aracika asanga Ndabarasa i Mwulire. Ndabarasa amubonye aramuyoberwa; Rumanzi aramwibwira, amubwira n'uko ibye byagenze. Ndabarasa amushyira mu banyanzoga n'abozi aramubashinga ngo bamumenye. Rumanzi yakirwa atyo, bukeye Ndabarasa amugabira umusozi witwa Gorora rya Bishenyi, amuha inka nyinshi. Ageze i Gorora arakira, aratunga aratunganirwa; ubwo Ndabarasa aba amushyize i Gorora.

Naho umukomero wo gushyirwa i Gorora, wabaye ku ngoma ya Gahindiro, atuye i Buhoro bwa Reramacu; yari ahafite inzu araramo, ikitwa Igorora.

Rimwe umugabo witwa Shabwega bwa Rubunge w'umwenegitoli, bene wa bo baramunyaga, aza kubaregera kwa Gahindiro. Amaze kubarega, Gahindiro arabatumira, bahageze baraburana, Shabwega aratsindwa. Amaze gutsindwa, baramucukura,bamuhindura umukene utakirebeka.

Bukeye Shabwega yibuka kujya kuganyira Gahindiro ubukene bwe; yatunguka abanyagihe bakamuheza, ku kagambane ka bene wabo bamukomanyirije.

Umunsi umwe Gahindiro aza ku karubanda; Shabwega yajya kumwegera bakamusunika. Gahindiro arabirabukwa, aramuhamagaza, amubaza icyo ashaka. Shabwega amutekerereza ubukene bwe. Gahindiro agira impuhwe, amushyira mu banyagikari aramubashinga.

Haciyeho iminsi, amushyira mu nzu ye yitwa i Gorora, akajya amusasira. Shabwega akora hasi, yongera kuba Shabwega bwa mbere,ava mu kajamajamo arakira, aradendeza aradabagira, bitewe n'uko Gahindiro amushyize i Gorora. Ushatse kujya kubonana na Gahindiro agahongera Shabwega ngo amusohoze amuhakirwe.

Ni uko uwo mugani wo gushyirwa i Gorora waturutse kuri Rumanzi w'umunyagisaka Ndabarasa yagabiye i Gorora, ari umukene bikamukiza, no kuri Shabwega Gahindiro yashyize mu nzu ye yitwaga Igorara, wamamara utyo wogera u Rwanda; uwo babonye wese avuye mu mage ahembutse, kimwe n'uwo berekeje aho yishyikira, bati: «Bamushyize igorora!»

" Gushyira umuntu igorora = Kumuha umudendezo."

 

Imvano : Internet

 

UDAHEMUKA Jean de Dieu

 

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